Allman's of Co Norfolk & Australia
Synopsis: A one-name study of Allman/Allmon's in Co Norfolk, England & Australia

Surname Index Page Norfolk Index Page Allman Index Page
William Allman of Norfolk Francis Allman of Norfolk & Australia Early Allman's of Great Yarmouth Other Allman's of Co Norfolk Other Allman's of Australia
Caution - some of these files are quite large, the William Allman file is over 1M in size so please be patient while the files display

Reproduction for the purpose of financial gain is prohibited. Redistribution of this material, in part or in its entirety, to a genealogical website/service which resells or charges for access is strictly prohibited - the material on this page is intended to be available free of charge and with unrestricted access. The data contained herein is for the most part either public domain or copyright of various statutory authorities, unless specified otherwise in the sources, and cannot be copyrighted by a third party. I make no claim regarding the accuracy of this chart; the original sources are not free from error and transcriptions may contain errors. Printing instructions: This document contains formatting which is incompatible with printing. To print use a text editor (eg: notepad) to remove all occurrences of "<fieldset>" and "</fieldset>" & then print in landscape mode, or email for a printable pdf. Last revision: 9th October, 2010. Layout & charts David Powell, email (roots-boots@hotmail.com), http://roots-boots.net/ft/names.html.


Francis Allman was born 1797, Norwich, Co Norfolk England. He arrived in Australia in 1818 as a convict on a 7 year sentence. His ancestry back in Co Norfolk, England can be conclusively traced back to William Allman (1697-1775) of Great Yarmouth and probably further back to John Allman (born 1510's), also of Great Yarmouth, Co Norfolk. After his sentence expired, Francis married and had 6 children, of whom 4 daughters survived to adulthood. Francis' only son died as an infant so alas the name died out with him. Allman's can be found around Australia today, however they are all descendent of other Allman immigrants from Ireland and other counties of England (as far as I have been able to tell, Francis was the only Allman from Co Norfolk to emigrate to Australia, voluntarily or involuntarily).



St John the Baptist Timberhill, Norwich
Image - Norfolk Churches
1.3.1.2. Francis Allman (s/o William, s/o Francis, s/o William), born 1797,[1,2,14,15,17,22,23,35,41] Norwich, Co Norfolk,[1,35,41] baptised 24/9/1797, St John the Baptist Timberhill, Norwich, Co Norfolk.[24] Cordwainer (boot & shoe maker), 1818,1827,1828,1830,1843.[1,2,4,21,41] Was tried at Norwich QS 26/10/1818, and charged with two others for stealing a thread-case, knife and other items from Susanna Blackburn.[1,3,4,54] Francis alone was found guilty and because it was his second offence,[1,3,4] he was sentenced to 7 years transportation.[1,3,4,14,15,54]
"The King vs Francis Allman, John Bales & Samuel Lawn
For stealing one Thread Case of the value of 2/- [2 shillings], one knife of the value of 1/- [1 shilling], one pair of scissors value 1/- [1 shilling], one bodkin value one penny, one pair tweezers value 2 pence, 50 needles value 2 1/2, a Skein of thread value 2d [2 pence] & One London [uncertain - hard to read, presumably a brand or type of dressmaker's pencil] pencil value 2d [2 pence], the property Susanna Blackburn.
Same Jury say Francis Allman is guilty. John Bales and Saml Lawn ["are" crossed out in original document] not guilty.
Judgement. That Francis Allman [unreadable short word, either erased or faded] to be transported beyond the Seas to such place or places ["beyond the S" is crossed out] as his Majesty by the advice of his privy council shall order and direct for the space of seven years."[4] {Note: original document uses the abbreviation "va8" for value. I have substituted value for va8 for the sake of clarity}

c.1800's Thread Case
Image - Em-Li's Sampler Supplies

c.1800's Silver Sewing Kit
Image - Ebay
His conduct during the trial was described as "extremely hardened" and sufficiently notable that the case was reported in a local newspaper, the Norwich Mercury (dated Saturday 31st October, 1818):
"Francis Alman and John Beales stood further indicted together with Samuel Lorn, for stealing a thread-case, knife and other articles from Susanna Blackburn. Alman was found guilty and sentence for this and the former offence to 7 years' transportation. His conduct during the trial was again extremely hardened and, on the Recorder passing sentence, he exclaimed: 'Thank you Gentlemen, I'm young and the world's wide and therefore I must e'en go through with it.' Against Beales and Lorn there was no evidence but Beales, for his former offence, was sentenced to two months' imprisonment in the Bridewell."[3]
Timber Hill Norwich, 2005
Image  Bob White
The newspaper report indicates that Francis had been charged and faced court for a previous offence (details unknown), although evidently no judgement had been passed.[3] It would appear that while on bail or parole for the first sentence, Francis then committed his second offence. At the time Francis was a tradesman (cordwainer) and unless there was a surplus of cordwainers in Norwich, he should have been able to have made a living. Was he a habitual thief or did he perhaps commit these petty crimes in order to be transported to one of the penal colonies and the consequent opportunity to start a new life afresh in a new land, free of the restrictions in class-ridden England? His behaviour at his trial would support either (or both) scenarios. Given that upon serving his sentence, Francis found employment as a cordwainer and died reasonably young (in his mid 40's), an inmate in an asylum, one wonders if he ever regretted the uncertain path he chose to trod? On 6/11/1818 was incarcerated on the hulk "Justitia", prisioner number 2187.[54] On 27/3/1819 was transferred[54] to the convict ship "Canada,[12,50] departed from London, 23/4/1819,[12,50] on the convict ship "Canada", arrived Sydney, Australia, 1/9/1819.[1,12,13,14,15,17,50] 135 convicts departed London, 133 arrived in Sydney.[50] The "Canada" was captained by Alex Spain and the surgeon was Dan McNamara.[50] Description on arrival: 22 years of age, 5'2-1/4" tall, face pale, hair brown, eyes hazel.[1] In the 1822 NSW Muster Francis was listed as a "government servant" in the employ of Alexander Tomsey (or Tompsey) of Sydney; fellow "employees" (at the time he was a convict) were Patrick Sheridan and Edward Sullivan, also convicts, both also serving 7 year sentences.[7,41] In the 1825 muster Frances was listed as working in a clearing party under the supervision of Andrew Byrne at Appin, NSW.[16] Received a "Certificate of Freedom", 27/10/1825, #188/4539.[13] In the 1828 census was listed as being a protestant and employed as a cordwainer (shoemaker) by John Pitches at Parramatta, where he also lived.[2,16,41] John Pitches was also an ex-convict, born 1774, who arrived in Sydney in 1803 on the "Perseus" on a life sentence.[16,41] By 1828 Pitches had gained his freedom and was working as a shoe maker, of sufficient standing to have had his own business and employ others.[16] In 1834 & 1836 Francis was living in George Street, Parramatta, NSW[8,41] and in 1839 was living in York Street, Sydney, according to the baptism record for his son, William.[9,41] Francis died 23/3/1843, at the Benevolent Asylum, Sydney, and was buried, 27/3/1843, in the Parish of St Lawrence, Sydney, NSW (47yo), "freed by servitude",[9,24,17,41] by Rev J. C. Grylls, according to the rites of the Church of England.[17,41]
Married Margaret Kelly,[20] by banns, with the consent of the Governor, 5/3/1827, at St John, C/E, Parramatta, by Rev. Samuel Marsden, witnesses were George Flintoff & Catherine Heensey, both of Parramatta, NSW.[2,5,9,15,18,35,41] Both Francis and Margaret were of the Parish of Parramatta and were both illiterate.[18] Margaret was born c.1800,[2,15,35] and baptised 5/8/1798, St. Mary, St. Marylebone Road, St. Marylebone, London, England, the d/o Edward Kelly & Mary Hawkridge.[19] Margaret was convicted of theft, 14/1/1824, at the Old Bailey, Co Middlesex.[16,38]

A trial at the Old Bailey, c.1810
Image - Wikimedia
Old Bailey, London
Image - London Travel Guide
"Margaret Kelly, Margaret Bryan, Theft > grand larceny, 14th January 1824.
Reference Number: t18240114-177. Offence: Theft > grand larceny. Verdict: Guilty; Guilty. Punishment: Transportation
384. Margaret Kelly & Margaret Bryan were indicted for stealing, on the 19th of July , two caps, value 1 s.; a bonnet, value 3 s.; and a pair of shoes, value 2 s., the goods of Ann Willocks ; a pair of shoes, value 18 d.; five caps, value 18 d.; two handkerchiefs, value 1 s.; two pairs of stockings, value 2 s.; three shawls, value 5 s.; a shift, value 1 s.; three gowns, value 10 s.; two petticoats, value 2 s.; and two bonnets, value 5 s., the goods of Robert Blacklaw ; a shift, value 1 s.; and a pair of shoes, value 1 s. , the goods of the Directors of the Guardians of the Poor of St. Mary-le-bone.
Mr. Adolphus conducted the prosecution.
Sarah Wood: Last summer, I was a pauper in St. Mary-le-bone Workhouse; the prisoners were also paupers there; we all three ran away. Bryan came and asked me to run away; I said I did not know where to go to; she then went to Kelly, who agreed to go, and I said I would go with them. We all went to bed at eight o'clock at night, and at twelve we all got up; we went across the yard, and got in at the little wash-house window into the laundry; Kelly set me to watch while they dressed themselves. We took nothing except what we dressed in, which was three gowns, three pairs of shoes, three shawls, a silk handkerchief, two flannel petticoats, two shifts, five caps, and two bonnets; they put a cap or two into their bosoms, and got out of window again, went to the gate, and found a ladder; got over the gate, dropped down the wall, and went into George-street, St. Giles's. Kelly took us there. She took out a purse of money, and said, there was eight or nine shillings; she afterwards felt for it, and said she had lost it. We staid two nights at Mrs. Pierce's, in George-street - it is a house of ill fame. They sent me to pawn a gown in Tottenham-court-road; I gave Kelly the ticket. We then went and lived at Allen's, in George-street, and slept there every night, all three together, for four months.
Q. How did you get your living - A. Kelly and Bryan went on the streets, and I was their servant for four months. I was then starving, and went back to the workhouse, and told the gentlemen the truth. Kelly paid Pierce for the lodging with a silk shawl and handkerchief. The things stolen all belonged to the paupers, except a shift and a pair of shoes.
Jane Blacklaw: I am laundress at Mary-le-bone work-house; the paupers' clothes are in my care. The prisoners and Thorp went away in the night, about the middle of the summer; they had left the laundry between seven and eight o'clock at night. I locked the door and left all safe, and in the morning found the wash-house window broken open, and the door burst open, to get to the laundry. I missed the articles stated in the indictment; five caps and two handkerchiefs belonged to me. My husband's name is Robert. I have since seen a gown, a cap, and petticoat.
Henry Stowell: I am an officer. I apprehended Kelly in Church-lane, St. Giles's, and Bryan in Bainbridge-street. I had met Martin with a gown, took it from her, and went back to Kelly; she said the gown was her's, that she took it out of the workhouse when she ran away. I found a cap on her head, and the duplicates of two petticoats on her.
Jane Martin: Kelly gave me the gown to pawn, and the officer met me with it. I had been put out by the parish, and left my place - I fell into company with them.
(Property produced and sworn to.)
William Henry Rainer: I have a flannel petticoat, which was pawned with me - I do not know who by. A duplicate found on the prisoner Kelly is what I gave the person.
KELLY - Guilty. Aged 23. BRYAN - Guilty. Aged 16. Both Transported for Seven Years."[38]
After her conviction Margaret was interred at the Newgate Prision, "Margaret Kelly, 23yo, larceny, convicted January 1824, Old Bailey, sentenced 7 years transportation.[55] Margaret arrived in Sydney, 23/1/1825, on the "Grenada".[16,18,50] The Grenada, a 408 ton ship captained by Alexander Anderson, departed from London 2/10/1824, sailing to Sydney via Teneriffe carrying 82 female convicts, taking 113 days for the voyage,[16,50] the ship's surgeon was Peter Cunningham, one convict died at sea.[50] Margaret married 2nd George Twigg, Bachelor, 9/6/1845, St Lawrence, Sydney, NSW.[36,41] Marriage was performed by William H. Walsh, chaplain.[36] Both George & Margaret were illiterate.[36] Witnesses were William Ainger of Parramatta Street & Thomas Wood of Castlereagh Street.[36] George, born 1809/1810,[16,39] arrived as a convict in 1832 on the "John".[16] George died 7/12/1862, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[39] Cause of death was paralysis, a coronial inquest was held 8/12/1862.[39] George was buried 8/12/1862.[9] According to "family lore" Margaret remarried after George died.[41] Certainly there is no trace of a death for Margaret in the NSW indices under either Kelly, Allman or Twigg. Margaret Twohig married Thomas White, 1866, Sydney, NSW.[5] Was this Margaret Kelly? There are no other possible marriages in the NSW BMD indices. May have been the Margaret White who died 1890, Newtown, Sydney, NSW, father unknown, mother listed as Margaret.[5] Another Margaret White died 1875, Redfern, Sydney, NSW.[5] Redfern borders Newtown, however this Margaret was the d/o John,[15] which conflicts with the baptism information for Margaret Kelly.[19] Mary had no issue with George Twigg or Thomas White.[5]

Children of Francis Allman and Margaret Kelly:
*
i.
 
Harriet Allman, born 19/8/1827, Parramatta, NSW,[9,41] and baptised 28/10/1827, St John, C/E, Parramatta, NSW (registered as Halman).[2,5,9,41]
*
ii.

Sarah Matilda Allman baptised 1829 at St John's C/E, Parramatta, NSW.[5,9,31,35,41,52]
*
iii.

Margaret Agnes Allman, born 3/8/1830, Parramatta, NSW,[6,9,20,21,41] and baptised 9/1/1831, St John, C/E, Parramatta, NSW (registered as Horman).[5,9,22,41]

iv.

Mary Ann Allman born 9/1/1833, Parramatta, NSW,[9,41] and baptised 1833, St John, C/E, Parramatta, NSW.[5,9,41] Died and was buried 1833, St John's, Parramatta, NSW.[5]
*
v.

Emma J. Allman, baptised 1835, St John's, Parramatta, NSW.[5]

vi.

William Allman born 6/4/1839, Sydney, NSW,[9,41] baptised 17/4/1839 at St Philip, C/E, Sydney, NSW.[5,9,41] Died and was buried 1839, St Phillip's, Sydney, NSW.[5]

Transported convicts were handed over to the master of a ship at the beginning of the voyage and formally transfered into the custody of the Governor of the colony who was receiving them. Indents, or Indentures, were the documents used to record the transaction on arrival. Convicts were housed below decks on the prison deck and often further confined behind bars. In many cases they were restrained in chains and were only allowed on deck for fresh air and exercise. Conditions were cramped and they slept on hammocks. Very little information seems to be available about the layout of the convict ships, but a few books do contain artists' impressions and reproductions of images held in library collections. Although the convicts of the first fleet arrived in relatively good condition, the same cannot be said for those that followed during the rest of the century. Cruel masters, harsh discipline and scurvy, dysentery and typhoid resulted in a huge loss of life. After the English authorities began to review the system in 1801 the ships were despatched twice a year, at the end of May and the beginning of September, to avoid the dangerous winters of the southern hemisphere. Surgeons employed by the early contractors had to obey to the master of the ship and on later voyages were replaced by independent Surgeon Superintendents whose sole responsibility was for the well being of the convicts. As time went on, successful procedures were developed and the surgeons were supplied with explicit instructions as to how life on board was to be organised. By then the charterers were also paid a bonus to land the prisoners safe and sound at the end of the voyage. By the time the exiles were being transported in the 1840s and onwards, a more enlightened routine was in place which even included the presence on board of a Religious Instructor to educate the convicts and attend to their spiritual needs. The shipboard routines on some of the Western Australian transports during the 1860s have been transcribed and are worth reading.[50]

St John's Pro-Cathedral, Parramatta
Image  'Captain Oddsocks'
Parramatta, c.1820
Painting by Joseph Lycett
Rev. Samuel Marsden
Painting - Joseph Backler

St John's, Parramatta. The original chapel was built 1799-1803, replacing a temporary place of worship opened in 1796. The 1803 building occupied the oldest church land grant in Australia and was Australia’s first substantial church. In 1820 Lieutenant John Watts added the four-storey twin towers with brick walls in stucco, stone quoins and foundations, each roofed by a broach spire, the idea being based upon the ruined church at Reculver, Kent. The first Rector was The Revd Samuel Marsden, who arrived in the colony in 1794 and who retained the Parish of Parramatta until his death in 1838. In 1852 the earlier chapel was demolished and a new sandstone nave built in the Norman-style which was opened in 1855. The transepts were added in 1883. The building includes nave, aisles, transepts and chancel, with distinctive circular Norman arches, columns and carved capitals. There is a wealth of memorial tablets and stained glass, witness to a long and illustrious history. Given the status of pro-cathedral in 1969, St John’s today is one of the finest Norman-style buildings in the country.[St John's] Parramatta was founded in 1788, the same year as Sydney, making it the second oldest European settlement in Australia. The British Colony had only enough food to support itself for a short time and the soil around Sydney Cove proved too poor to grow the amount of food that 1000 convicts, soldiers and administrators needed to survive. During 1788, Governor Arthur Phillip had reconnoitred several places before choosing Parramatta as the likeliest place for a successful large farm. Parramatta was the furthest navigable point inland on the Parramatta River and also the point at which the river became freshwater and therefore useful for farming. On Sunday 2/11/1788, Governor Phillip took a detachment of marines along with a surveyor and made his way upriver to a location what he called The Crescent, a defensible hill curved round a river bend, now in Parramatta Park. As a settlement developed, Governor Phillip gave it the name "Rose Hill" which in 1791 he changed to Parramatta, approximating the term used by the local Aboriginal people.[Wikipedia] By July 1789 a redoubt with barracks and store had been erected on the south bank of the river (today Parramatta Park) together with some convict huts, a barn and granaries. The first successful harvest was in 1789. In 1790 a township was formed and work began on a house for the Governor when he visited the settlement (for a time Parramatta even became the seat of government for the colony and, by definition, the nation's capital). The plan of the township was on a grand scale, laid out by Baron Augustus Alt and Lieutenant William Dawes. The main street (High Street, later George Street) was to be 1.5 kilometres long and 62 metres wide, on an east-west axis from Government House to the public wharf. A second street parallel to the High Street and 33 metres wide was also laid out, called South Street. Wide cross streets at right angles to the main axis were laid out in front of Government House; by the church (ending at the north end in an open plaza with the size for a Town Hall as its focus); and also further to the east, as a crossing point over the river. These streets all survive today. For a short period Parramatta had a larger population than Sydney, but it soon lost its dominance. Sydney was the only real port for overseas trade and with the opening up of the Hawkesbury from 1794 that district became the granary of the colony. In 1793 a ferry from Sydney to Parramatta was established and in 1794 a road was built from Sydney. The river however remained for some time the more popular, and comfortable, means of transport. The second stage of the planning of Parramatta took place in 1811 when extensions to the town were laid out by Governor Macquarie, as surveyed by James Meehan. Macquarie's extension of the town plan included the formation of a number of additional streets parallel to the original High Street and of more cross streets, together with the formation of a tighter grid of streets in the vicinity of the church. In addition to his alterations to the layout of the town, a number of new public buildings were also added to the settlement during the Macquarie period. Some were additions to, or replacements of, building stack which was by this stage very decayed. Others were new enhancements.[Lancer Barracks]

George Street, Sydney, 1833
Lithograph - Alexis Nicolas Noel

York Street, Sydney, 1842
Drawing by John Rae
St Philip's, Sydney, 1848
Drawing - J. Fowles

The origins of George Street lie in the layout of the Sydney Cove colony. Captain Arthur Phillip placed the convicts and marines on the rocky western slopes of the bay. A track leading from the convicts' encampment in the area of The Rocks, past the marine barracks and alongside the banks of a stream to a brick pit, located near to the present location of Central Station. This track that eventually became George Street is one of the two original thoroughfares, along with the track that became Bridge Street. It is likely that George Street was the first street in Australia. Until 1810 George Street was generally referred to as High Street in the English custom. George Street was named for King George III by Governor Lachlan Macquarie in 1810. George Street remains the busiest street in Sydney (and arguably in Australia) and is still the main street of Sydney's CBD. It actually stretches some 210 km, beginning at The Rocks and stretching to Central Station, from there it continues west first as Broadway, then Parramatta Road and finally stretching all the way to Bathurst as the Great Western Highway.[Wikipedia] York Street, Sydney. The above sketch is by John Rae, drawn in 1842, looking south from midway between Market and Druitt Streets. The brick wall enclosing the Old Burial Ground can just be made out at the end of York Street, and the temporary St Andrews church. The Old Burial Ground was the Council’s preferred option for a Town Hall site. It was first suggested to the government in 1843. The proposal met with the Governor’s approval, but was blocked by the Legislative Council which doubted that the Governor had the power to grant ‘a public and sacred site’ for secular purposes. Governor Gipps proposed introducing a bill to clarify the situation, but after receiving a petition from the Bishop objecting to the proposed use, the idea was deferred. The Council also considered the George Street Market and Police Office site (shown to the left in the drawing) as a possible location.[City of Sydney] Sydney's first church was a wattle and daub chapel built at what is now the corner of Bligh and Hunter Streets. It was in this building that Australia's first Christian service in a building took place on 25/8/1793. A T-shaped building, with a thatched roof and an earthen floor, it could seat 500. During the week it served as a schoolhouse where the Reverend Richard Johnson, the colonial chaplain, and his wife, Mary, taught between 150 and 200 children. On the evening of 1/10/1798 the chapel was destroyed by fire. Later that month the Governor, John Hunter, initiated work on what he saw to be a substantial stone church. It was to rise on land at Church Hill in what is now Lang Park. Just across the road from the present church. On 1/10/1800, prior to his being sworn in as the new Governor, Captain Philip Gidley King laid the foundation stone on what was to become the first St Philip's. In 1802 he proclaimed Australia's first two parishes as St Philip's (Sydney) and St John's (Parramatta). 'Old' St Philip's served Sydney from this date until 27/3/1856 when the present church was consecrated. The 1802 building, alas, no longer exists. St Philip's was the first church building to be lit by gaslight in Australia in 1841. The 4th Governor, William Bligh, worked hard for an early completion of the church - which was dedicated to St Philip the Apostle. The Rev William Cowper was the first (and only) rector at the old St Philip's. Cowper arrived in Sydney 18/8/1809 and preached his first sermon in St Philip's on the 20th, within 48 hours of his arrival. After 49 years, Cowper was succeeded by his son, William Macquarie Cowper, who was rector of St Philip's for 44 years.[St Philip's]

Christ Church "St Laurence", Sydney, 1838-1845
Painting - Christ Church, Sydney

Christ Church "St Lawrance", Sydney, 1880
Image
- Christ Church, Sydney
Sydney Benevolent Asylum, c.1848
Painting - State Library NSW

Located at 812 George Street, the foundation stone of Christ Church "St Laurence" (or Lawrence) was laid 1/1/1840 and the partially completed building was consecrated 10/9/1845. The first service in the civil Parish of St Lawrence was, however, conducted by the Bishop of Australia, William Grant Broughton in a brewery storeroom in Elizabeth Street, Surry Hills, on Sunday 28/10/1838. The location of the original "St Laurence" is beneath the Centennial Plaza development, which has obliterated any trace of the early uses of the land. The services were held in a storeroom of the Albion Brewery, owned by John Terry Hughes. The land, however, supported more than just a brewery. A law report for a Supreme Court case in the 1870s described the diversity of uses which must have remained virtually unchanged since the 1830s: "It has an area of about twenty acres, consisting chiefly of grazing land, which has a considerable decline from east to west. At the north-west corner of the property are the plaintiff's [Hughes'] residence and gardens, and adjoining these, to the south, stand some extensive premises formerly used as a mill and brewery, and next to these buildings are three ponds or reservoirs of considerable size, from which water was drawn for the supply of the machinery when at work. These ponds were supplied with water from a creek or watercourse, fed by drainage from the high grounds on the eastward." Hughes' residence, Albion House, stood at the corner of Albion and Elizabeth Streets and the temporary church was housed in the northernmost storeroom which stood next to the gardens on Elizabeth Street. The temporary church remained in use until the consecration of Christ Church in 1845. The apparent double dedication of Christ Church, St Laurence has been a cause of some confusion and controversy over the years. The parish church is, and always has been dedicated "Christ Church." It is the civil parish which was originally named "St Lawrence," and this title remained in common usage with the ecclesiastical district. The term "civil" is used to distinguish ecclesiastical parishes from the system of parishes set up in NSW to identify geographic areas. The parishes in the settled regions of NSW were not formally proclaimed until 1835. The three other civil parishes in the City of Sydney, "St Phillip", "St James" and "St Andrew" derived their names from the churches within their boundaries. The parish surrounding Parramatta was named "St John" after the church there. There was no church, even a proposed one, in the fourth parish of the city, so the reason for the name "St Lawrence" remains a mystery. Even as early as 1845 the origin of the name "St Lawrence" had become a mystery.[Christ Church St Laurence] The Sydney Benevolent Asylum was established in 1821 by the Sydney Benevolent Society. In 1820 the Society petitioned the Governor Macquarie for finance for an asylum. Macquarie was receptive and a suitable building with accommodation for 50 to 60 persons was designed and erected at Government expense. The design was pseudoclassical, of brick construction with brick pilasters extending for the whole height, and with a meaningless gable which projected from the main roof with nothing to support it. It was located near the Turnpike House, at the corner of Pitt and Devonshire Streets, where Central Railway Station now stands. The asylum was opened to receive inmates 12/10/1821, the Government having supplied furnishings for sixty persons. Admission was by application to the Benevolent Society and each application had to be accompanied an endorsement from a member of the Society or a donor. The proportion of disabled and infirm inmates resident in the asylum rendered necessary the provision of a medical service which, in the early years, was provided by Dr Bland. At Bland's suggestion, a hospital for 40 patients was included in the extensions of the north wing in 1825. The demand on the asylum continued to increase and it was consistently overcrowded. By 1830 it was accommodating 112 men and 32 women, of whom 57 were 70 years of age and over. The pattern of demand, inadequate accommodation and overcrowding was recurrent throughout the whole of the period to 1851. Admissions were periodically restricted to the totally infirm, and temporary relief from overcrowding sought by wholesale discharges of the younger able-bodied men. The depression of 1842 was reflected in increased demand for admission, and again restrictions were imposed – this time on moral criteria. Irrespective of needs, alcoholics or persons with ‘blatant immoral habits’ were excluded {Francis died 1843 at the asylum, so evidently he had reformed since his younger days!}. By 1849 the number of inmates were approaching the 500 mark, with an increasing demand on the hospital wards. More than half of the population were categorised as sick or infirm. In 1851 the Society was given use of the then unused Liverpool Hospital. All male patients were transfered to the new site and the Sydney Benevolent Asylum became an all-female instiitution. Many of today's essential community services were pioneered by the Benevolent Society, including the present day public health system.[Benevolent Society, Ambulance NSW:Benevolent Society]


1.3.1.2.1. Harriet Allman, born 19/8/1827, Parramatta, NSW,[9,41] and baptised 28/10/1827, St John's, Parramatta, NSW (registered as Halman),[2,5,9,41] by Rev. Samuel Marsden.[41] Died 21/10/1914, Rydalmere Psychiatric Hospital, NSW (88yo),[5,10,11,41] and buried 23/10/1914, Methodist Section, Rookwood Cemetery, NSW,[10,41] informant was Benjamin Reuben Denning.[41] Married Edward Denning, 18/10/1841, by banns, at C/E Cook's River, Petersham, NSW.[5,9,41] Edward signed his name, Harriet was illiterate.[41] Witnesses were John Donald of St Peters and George Twigg (also illiterate) of Newtown.[41] Edward born 1817 & baptised 1817, St John's, Parramatta, NSW, the s/o Thomas & Mary Denning,[5] and died 1892, Taralga, NSW.[5,11] Resided Parramatta, NSW 1842-1844; Goulburn, NSW 1844; Taralga, NSW 1846-1892 (and possibly beyond).

Children of Harriet Allman & Edward Denning:

i.
 
Thomas Denning, born 1842, Parramatta, NSW.[5,11] Died 1922, Parkes, NSW.[5,11] Married Catherine Howard, 1868, Goulburn, NSW.[5,11]
Children: (a)
 
Edward H. Denning, born 1869-1872, Goulburn, NSW, d.Yass, NSW.[5]
(b)
Thomas William Denning, born 1870, Yass, NSW.[5] Died 1945, Parkes, NSW.[5] Married Mary A. Pursen, 1892, Tamworth, NSW.[5]
(c)
Amelia Mary W. Denning, born 1872, Yass, NSW.[5] Married William Davies, 1897, Parkes, NSW.[5]
Children: (1)
 
William Thomas Henry Davies, born 1898, Parkes, NSW.[5] Died 1945, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Jean Bouffler, 1934, Petersham, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(2)
David H. Davies, born 1900, Parkes, NSW.[5] Married Amy Walker, 1926, Parkes, NSW.[5]
(3)
Annie L. Davies, born 1901, Parkes, NSW.[5] Married Arthur V. M. Quiggen, 1924, Parkes, NSW.[5]
(d)
Ada Denning, born 1873, Yass, NSW.[5]
(e)
Oswald Leister Denning, born 1874, Wagga Wagga, NSW.[5] Died 1875, Wagga Wagga, NSW.[5]
(f)
Alfred Ernest Denning, born 1876, Wagga Wagga, NSW.[5] Married Sarah J. Clark, 1898, Randwick, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(g)
Percival Allman Denning, born 1879, Wagga Wagga, NSW.[5] Married Ella M. Cock, 1909, Parkes, NSW.[5]
Children: (1)
 
Kate Allman Denning, born 1910, Parkes, NSW.[5] Married Albert Victor Rutland, 1944, Rockdale, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(2)
Jack Allman Denning, born 1911, Parkes, NSW.[5] Died 1911, Parkes, NSW.[5]
(3)
Joan Allman Denning, born 1915, Parkes, NSW.[5] Married John David Nancarrow, 1939, Rockdale, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(h)
Aubrey Richard Milne Denning,[34] born 1881, Wagga Wagga, NSW.[5] Married Amy M. Plows, 1904, Redfern, Sydney, NSW.[5] {See below for photograph of Aubrey, his wife & children}
Children: (1)
 
Muriel Adelaide Oram, born 17/9/1904, "Home of Hope", Stanley Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[34] Died 9/7/1992, Baringa Private Hospital, Coffs Harbour, NSW & buried 13/7/1992, Karangi, NSW.[34] Cause of death was Cerebral haemorrhage.[34] Muriel was born out of wedlock after a liaison between Aubrey Denning, who was working at Mudgee Railway Station, and Rose Oram, who used to help out in her sister's shop across the road from the station. When Rose found that she was pregnant, Aubrey was already engaged to Amy Plows and was unwilling to break off the engagement and subsequent marriage. Muriel was raised first by her maternal grandparents and then her mother after she married.[34] Married Henry John Thomas Mercer, 7/4/1925, St Michaels C/E, Flinders St, Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW.[34] Henry the s/o John Mercer & Jane Abbott, born 6/4/1899, Crown St., Surry Hills, Sydney, NSW, died 26/8/1969, District Hospital, Coffs Harbour, NSW & buried 28/8/1969, North Coast Crematorium, Goonellabah, NSW.[34]
(2)
Dorothy F. M. Denning, born 1905, Cowra, NSW.[5]
(3)
Vera E. M. Denning, born 1907, Wellington, NSW.[5] Married Reuben Mc. M. Wilson, 1934, Mosman, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(4)
Allan Aubrey Thomas Denning, born 1913, East Maitland, NSW.[5] Married Shirley Frances M. McDonnell,1938, Manly, Sydney,NSW.[5]
(i)
Kate E. Denning, born 1886, Wagga Wagga, NSW.[5]

ii.

Edward Denning, born 1844, Parramatta, NSW,[5,11] baptised 1844, C/E Goulburn, NSW.[9] Died 1861, Goulburn, NSW.[5,11]

iii.

William Denning, born 1846, Taralga, NSW,[5,11] baptised 1846, C/E Goulburn, NSW.[9] Died 1926, Yass, NSW.[5,11] Married Eliza Howard, 1870, Goulburn, NSW.[5,11]
Children: (a)
 
Alice Mary Denning, born 1871, Wagga Wagga, NSW.[5] Died 1937, Bulli, NSW.[5] Married Allen D. Shaw, 1903, Granville, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(b)
Mabel Harriet Denning, born 1873, Wagga Wagga, NSW.[5] Married Charles T. McAuley, 1894, Yass, NSW.[5]
Children: (1)
 
Violet B. McAuley, born 1895, Yass, NSW.[5] Married Charles R. M. Fear, 1922, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(2)

Herbert Charles McAuley, born 1897, Yass, NSW.[5] Married Lillian G. May, 1923, Hornsby, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(c)
Lillian Ruth Denning, born 1875, Wagga Wagga, NSW.[5] Married Herbert W. McAuley, 1910, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(d)
William Allman Denning, born 1877, Wagga Wagga, NSW.[5] Died 1937, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Grace F. Addison, 1898, Adelong, NSW.[5]
Children: (1)
 
Florence A. Denning, born 1899, Yass, NSW.[5]
(2)
Roy A. Denning, born 1902, Lockhart, NSW.[5] Married Daphne K. M. Moore, 1929, Temora, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(3)
Irene E. Denning, born 1904, Waterloo, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1906, Waterloo, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(e)
Edith Ada Denning, born 1880, Yass, NSW.[5] Married William R. Bissell, 1904, Granville, Sydney, NSW.[5]
Children: (1)
 
Thelma E. Bissell, born 1906, Woonona, NSW.[5] Married Matthew Daisley, 1929, Bulli, NSW.[5]
(2)
Thomas C. W. Bissell, born 1907, Woonona, NSW.[5] Died 1924, Wollongong, NSW.[5]
(3)
Wilfred H. Bissell, born 1911, Woonona, NSW.[5]
(f)
Herbert Edward Denning, born 1882, Yass, NSW.[5] Died 1888, Argyle/Goulburn, NSW.[5]
(g)
George L. Denning, born 1884, Argyle/Goulburn, NSW.[5]
(h)
Roy H. Denning, born 1888, Argyle/Goulburn, NSW.[5]
(i)
Annie E. Denning, born 1892, Yass, NSW.[5] Died 1929, Yass, NSW.[5]

iv.

John Denning, born 1848, Taralga, NSW,[5,11] baptised 1848, C/E Goulburn, NSW.[9] Died 1926, Burwood, Sydney, NSW.[5,11] Carpenter, 1886,1887,1888.[42] Married Sarah Matilda P. Munn, 1871, Goulburn, NSW.[5,11] Resided, 1886,1887, No.6, Botany View Terrace, Union Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW (between King St & Erskinville Rd).[42] Resided 1888, Arno Lodge, Prospect Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] In 1912 John, a cabinetmaker, had a shop at 58 Enmore Road, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] {This was the same premises his son, Cecil, was at in 1911.[42] Could the 1912 reference have been to Cecil? Were both John & Cecil working from the shop in 1911-1912?}
Children: (a)
 
Nellie E. Denning, born 1872, Goulburn, NSW.[5]
(b)
Cecil Harold Denning, born 1874, Orange, NSW.[5] Cabinetmaker, 1911.[42] Married Maud H. Mann, 1900, Waterloo, Sydney, NSW.[5] Resided 1911, 167 Alice Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] Cecil had a shop in 1911 at 58 Enmore Road, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42]
Children: (1)
 
Myra N./M. Denning, born 1901, Redfern, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Stanley W. Murray, 1924, Canterbury, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(2)
Jack E. Denning, born 1902, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Edna F. Teasdale, 1929, Canterbury, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(3)
Arthur W. Denning, born 1903, Leichardt, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Josephine Burridge, 1927, Canterbury, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(4)
Cecil H. Denning, born 1907, Waverley, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Florence L. Watson, 1929, Marrickville, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(5)
Olivette Ethel Denning, born 1910, Paddington, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Ralph Starkey, 1937, Canterbury, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(6)
Marcus L. Denning, born 1913, Paddington, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1915, Paddington, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(7)
Leslie Gilbert Denning, born 1915, Paddington, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Daphne Josephine Hill, 1942, Canterbury, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(c)
Arthur O. Denning, born 1877, Molong, NSW.[5] Died 1882, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(d)
Oswald Clarence Denning, born 1882, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1933, Balmain South, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(e)
Violet E. Denning, born 1884, Petersham, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married William Bryon, 1906, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(f)
Olwitte E. Denning, born 1888, Woollahra, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(g)
Althea L. Denning, born 1892, Hamilton, NSW.[5]

v.

Mary Emma Denning, born 1850, Taralga, NSW,[5,11] baptised 1850, C/E Goulburn, NSW.[9] Died 1929, Fivedock, Sydney, NSW.[5,11] Married John Wesley Woolley, 1880, Cootamundra, NSW.[5,11]
Children: (a)
 
Gertrude Alice Woolley, born 1883, Goulburn, NSW.[5] Married Horace L. Howe, 1917, Petersham, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(b)
Frederick J. R. Woolley, born 1887, Taralga, NSW.[5] Married Emily Marlin, 1918, Woollahra, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(c)
Ethel M. Woolley, born 1889, Condobolin, NSW.[5]

vi.
Frederick Denning, born 1852, Taralga, NSW,[5,11] baptised 1852, C/E Goulburn, NSW.[9] Died 1936, Liverpool, Sydney, NSW.[5,11] Married Grace C. G. Kingdom, 1884, Goulburn, NSW.[5,11]
Children: (a)
 
Frederick A. Denning, born 1885, Goulburn, NSW.[5] Married Bertha Pleace, 1906, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
Children: (1)
 
Frederick O. Denning, born 1908, Canterbury, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Phyllis R. Jarrett, 1932, Wallsend, NSW.[5]
(2)
Bertha O./C. Denning, born 1910, Canterbury, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married John B. O'Connell, 1934, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(3)
James Lancelot Denning, born 1915, Redfern, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Johanna Hendrika Blom, 1939, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(b)
Albert V. Denning, born 1887, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1887, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(c)
Gladys F. Denning, born 1888, Goulburn, NSW.[5] Died 1912, Crookwell, NSW.[5] Married Matthew Gay, 1911, Crookwell, NSW.[5]
(d)
Lancelott H. Denning, born 1890, Crookwell, NSW.[5] Married Mary F. Lethbridge, 1934, Crookwell, NSW.[5]

vii.
Harriet Denning, born 1855, Taralga, NSW,[5,11] baptised 1855, C/E Goulburn, NSW.[9] Died 1883, Gladesville, Sydney, NSW.[5,11]

viii.
James Denning, born 1857,[33] Taralga, NSW.[5,11] Died 24/7/1899, Norwood, Adelaide, South Australia.[11,33] Married Alice Frances Liggins, 1887, Goulburn, NSW.[5,11] Alice born 1868, died 1959.[11]
Children: (a)
 
Georgina Liggens Denning, born 1888,[33] Cootamundra, NSW.[5,11] Died 1953.[11] Married 1st Henry Oliver Arthur Rankin, 21/12/1912, [11,33] St George, Goodwood, Adelaide, South Australia.[33] Henry born 1888, died 1955.[11] Married 2nd Maxwell Greayer Cooke, 21/4/1928,[11,33] North Unley, South Australia.[33] Maxwell born 1897-1989.[11]
(b)
Clara Helen Denning, born 1890, Hillgrove, NSW.[5,11,33] Died 31/8/1907, Unley, South Australia.[11,33]
(c)
Vera Alice Denning, born 1892, Mudgee, NSW.[5,11] Died 1893, Mudgee, NSW.[5,11]

ix.

Sarah Emily Denning, born 1859, Goulburn, NSW.[5,11] Died 1859, Goulburn, NSW.[5,11]

x.

Eliza Denning, born 1861, Taralga, NSW.[5,11] Died 1931, Nowra, NSW.[5,11] Married Elijah Taylor Faulks, 1893, Goulburn, NSW.[5,11]
Children: (a)
 
Edwin R. D. Faulks, born 1897, Condobolin, NSW.[5] Married Doris C. Duke, 1919, Canterbury, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(b)
Cecil B. A. Faulks, born 1898, Condobolin, NSW.[5] Married Gwenneth M. Milne, 1928, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(c)
Martha Clara Faulks, born 1901, Condobolin, NSW.[5] Married Albany Vincent Owen, 1936, Sydney, NSW.[5]

xi.
George Edward Denning, born 1864, Taralga, NSW.[5,11] Died 1944, Bankstown, Sydney, NSW.[5,11] Married Emma C. Anderson, 1888, Taralga, NSW.[5,11]
Children: (a)
 
Rupert E. G. Denning, born 1890, Newcastle, NSW.[5]
(b)
Garnet A. Denning, born 1894, Parramatta, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Alma F. Wilson, 1920, Moree, NSW.[5]
(c)
Phyllis A. Denning, born 1898, Goulburn, NSW.[5] Married Albert E. Partridge, 1927, Burwood, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(d)
Juanita R. Denning, born 1908, Parramatta, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Arthur K. H. Gordon, 1929, Burwood, Sydney, NSW.[5]

xii.
Benjamin Reuben Denning [Denking], born 1866, Taralga, NSW,[11] registered Goulburn, NSW.[5,9] Died 1957, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[5,11] Married Florence Duffin, 1899, Glebe, Sydney, NSW.[5,11]
Children: (a)
 
Ettie Denning, born 1899, Glebe, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Frank W. Smith, 1928, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(b)
Arthur W. Denning, born 1901, Glebe, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Josephine Burridge, 1927, Canterbury, NSW.[5]
(c)
Benjamin Denning, born 1906, Cooma, NSW.[5]
(d)
Lorna Mabel Denning, born 1913, Murrumburrah, NSW.[5] Married Leslie Charles Yabsley, 1945, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(e)
Dulcie Florence Denning, born 1914, Manly, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Eric Bonbrec Grieve, 1939, Sydney, NSW.[5]

xiii.
Emaline Denning, born 1868, Taralga, NSW,[11] registered Goulburn, NSW.[5,9] Died 1868, Taralga, NSW.[5,11]

xiv.
Albert Arthur Denning [Denking], born 1869, Taralga, NSW,[11] registered Goulburn, NSW.[5,9] Died 1956, Crookwell, NSW.[5,11] Married Grace Mary Banfield, 1899, Crookwell, NSW.[5,11]
Children: (a)
 
Lilla Denning, born 1902, Crookwell, NSW.[5] Married John White, 1930, Crookwell, NSW.[5]
(b)
Grace M. Denning, born 1904, Crookwell, NSW.[5] Married Frederick J. Hillman, 1934, Crookwell, NSW.[5]
(c)
Albert A. Denning, born 1906, Crookwell, NSW.[5] Married Ellen M. Shepperd, 1933, Boorowa, NSW.[5]
(d)
William Henry Denning, born 1908, Crookwell, NSW.[5] Died 1936, Trunkey, NSW.[5]
(e)
John James Denning, born 1910, Crookwell, NSW.[5] Married Reba Lillian Morgan, 1941, Boorowa, NSW.[5]
(f)
Thomas Banfield Denning, born 1912, Crookwell, NSW.[5] Married Constance May Holmes, 1939, Crookwell, NSW.[5]
(g)
Kathleen May Denning, born 1914, Crookwell, NSW.[5] Married Stuart Valda Hillman, 1940, Crookwell, NSW.[5]
(h)
Sylvia F. Denning, born 1916 Crookwell, NSW.[5]

xv.
Clara Jane Denning, born 1872, Taralga, NSW,[11] registered Goulburn, NSW.[5,9] Died 1967, Rydalmere, Sydney, NSW.[5,11] Married Alfred W. Raleton/Railton, 1895, Taralga, NSW.[5,11]
Children: (a)
 
Edward R. Railton, born 1897, Wagga Wagga, NSW.[5] Married Ada M. Croker, 1927, Goulburn, NSW.[5]
(b)
Harold L. Railton, born 1899, Woollahra, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Aura B. Holland, 1921, Rockdale, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(c)
Sydney D. Railton, born 1904, Mosman, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(d)
Philip N. Railton, born 1905, St Peter's, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Dorothy T. Gates, 1934, Petersham, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(e)
Alfred W. Railton, born 1913, Mosman, Sydney, NSW.[5]


Aubrey Denning with wife
& children c.1910

Image - Colleen Watt
Muriel Mercer, c.1912
d/o Aubrey Denning

Image - Colleen Watt
Parramatta, view from Mays Hill, c.1840
Painting - George E. Peacock: State Lib. NSW
St Saviour's, Goulburn (1839-1874)
Painting -  Goulburn Cathedral

Early settlers came to the Goulburn region before 1820. The first church of St. Saviour was built in 1839. St Saviour's became the pro-cathedral for the Diocese of Goulburn in April 1864. At the time the diocese nearly one quarter of the State of NSW. Construction of the present day cathedral began in 1874, around the old St Saviour's Church. The bricks of the old church now form the floor of the Cathedral. The cathedral was completed in 1884. The tower and eight bells were added in 1988. St. Saviour's Cathedral is one of the most beautiful Gothic Cathedrals in Australia, built in the "Decorated Gothic" style.[St Saviours] For a description & short history of Goulburn, refer to notes after Sarah Allman, who lived there 1860-1864.

Taralga, road to Wombeyan Caves, 13/12/1901
Image - Powerhouse Museum

Restored settlers Slab Hut, Taralga
Image
- Argyle County
Female ward, Rydalmere Mental Hospital, c.1958
Image - State Library NSW

Taralga is about 45 km north of Goulburn en route to Wombeyan Caves and Oberon. It has one of the largest Roman Catholic churches (a comment on the Irish Catholics who settled the area) of any small town in Australia. The first European to pass through Taralga was the explorer Charles Throsby who, in 1819 journeyed from Camden to Bathurst in search of new grazing lands. Legend has it that Throsby had also been secretly commissioned to find more pastures for the Macarthurs, and that on seeing the land around Taralga, a horseman was sent back to Sydney to stake claims over it. When Oxley and Commissioner Bigge passed by a year later, the Macarthur's had already established large holdings on which they were grazing cattle {it is for no trite reason that the early big names in the plains farming were known as Squatter Barons}. Within 10 years they had been joined by others, many of whom were absentee landlords. Taralga was recognised as a settlement in 1825, although the village was not established until many years later. A private village was established on land donated by James Macarthur and cleared by convicts in order to house and service members of the Macarthur family and their employees. In fact the town's main street, Orchard Street, is named because it traverses land upon which the family's orchard was originally planted. For the first few decades, most of the settlers were convicts assigned to the landowners and it was they who largely cleared the land, built the huts and houses, and ran the farms. Life for them, if contemporary anecdotes are to be believed, was particularly harsh if not brutal. The first semblance of a village was of their huts: one Thomas Denning, sheep overseer for the Macarthurs, and Duncan Rankin (public pound keeper) built in the 1840s near the site of the present day town. The settlement began to expand in the 1850s. A national school was opened in 1857 and the first church in 1861 (Presbyterian - St. Ignatius (RC) built 1864, St. Lukes (Anglican) in 1866 and & the Methodist church in 1868). {The lack of a local church until the 1860's no doubt explains why Harriet's children were baptised at Goulburn}. There were a number of stores, smiths and artisans' businesses and three hotels recorded in 1866 when the town had 110 residents and 24 dwellings. By 1891 the population had reached 723 (the 2007 population was 370). The original main street was Macarthur Street, not the present one, and some of the earliest buildings can be found there. The rapid expansion after the 1860s was partly due to the influx of migrants following the gold rushes, and the Land Acts of 1861 which made it possible for people to take up small grants from the government at favourable rates. Taralga differs from many similar small country towns in that a large proportion of its existing buildings date from the 1860s to 1890s because most of them are of stone construction.[Argyle County:Taralga, Walkabout] The Rydalmere Psychiatric Hospital was established in 1888 and continued to operate on the site until 1987. Prior to the hospital being opened the site was used as the Female Orphan School (1813-1850) and then the co-ed Protestant Orphan School (1850-1887). In 1888 the complex was transferred to the Department of Lunacy & the former school then became a branch of the Parramatta Hospital for the Insane. In 1891 the hospital was renamed Rydalmere Hospital for the Insane and the first female patients admitted in 1895. Over the years following 1985 the hospital was progressively closed. In 1993 the site became the Parramatta South Campus of the University of Western Sydney.[Heritage NSW]

Also appearing in the Sands Directory for Newtown from 1889 to 1911 was James Henry (or Henry James) Denning, a painter.[42] James born 1867, Orange, NSW, s/o John H. & Emma Eliza Denning and died 1930, Newtown, Sydney.[5] John was a brother of Edward (who married Harriett Allman, above) and was baptised 1821, St Philip's, Sydney, NSW.[5] A Mrs Denning, dressmaker, appears in the Sands Directory for 1887 (Bailey Street), 1892 (Newman St) and again in 1893-1894 (Mary St).[42] Was this Harriet? Harriet's husband did not die until 1892, but she may have moved to Sydney with her son before she was widowed. Emma Eliza Denning, mother of James Henry, died 1875, Orange, NSW.[5] William Denning, a plumber, (born 1861, Bathurst, another s/o John H. & Emma Eliza) appears briefly in the Sands Directory for 1888,[42] but died 1890, Newtown, Sydney.[5] There are no other Dennings listed in the Sands Directory between 1858-1912.


1.3.1.2.2. Sarah Matilda Allman,[31,52] baptised 1829 at St John's C/E, Parramatta, NSW.[5,9,31,35] Died 1904 at Waterloo, Sydney, NSW.[5,31] Married Joseph Adams,[31,52] 5/9/1843, by banns at St Peter's C/E, Cook's River, St Peters, Sydney, NSW.[5,9,31] Joseph was a labourer, 1861.[31] Witnesses were John Cook and Harriet Cousens.[41] Sarah & both witnesses were illiterate whilst Joseph signed his name.[41] At the time of the marriage both Sarah & Joseph were both of the Cook's River parish.[41] Joseph arrived Port Philip (Melbourne), Victoria, 1842, on board the "Samuel Boddington", as an assisted immigrant.[31,40] Joseph died 1893, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Fruiterer, 1877; dealer, 1879-1880; fuel merchant 1882-1889.[42] From 1884-1889 had a shop at No. 8, Missenden Road, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] Resided 1844-1850 Cook's River (now part of St Peters), Sydney, NSW.[5,9,31] Resided 1852, Camperdown, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5,9,31] Resided 1856 O'Connell Town, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5,31] Resided 1858, Glebe, Sydney, NSW.[5] Resided 1860-1864, Towrang ('Tourang'), Goulburn, NSW.[5,31,32] Resided 1867, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5,31] Resided 1869, Union Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] Resided 1870, Station Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] Resided 1871, George Street, Sydney, NSW.[5,31] Resided 1876, Cooks River Road, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] Resided 1877,1879-1882, Missenden Road, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] Resided 1883, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5,32] Resided 1884-1888, Longdown Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42]

Children of Sarah Allman & Joseph Adams:

i.
 
Harriet Adams, baptised 6/7/1844, St Peter's C/E, Cook's River, St Peters, Sydney, NSW.[5,9,31] General servant, 1861.[31] Died 12/1/1941, Rawson Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW (97yo).[5,31] Buried Methodist Cemetery, Rookwood, Sydney, NSW.[31] Married Malachi Townsend, 18/2/1861, Goulburn Methodist Church, Towrang ('Tourang'), NSW.[5,31] Malachi was the s/o Thomas & Phoebe Townsend.[31] Malachi, as assisted immigrant, arrived in Sydney 11/3/1849 on the "St Vincent",[31,40] born 1834 (15yo), Orwell, Berkshire, England.[31] Malachi was a labourer, 1861, railway fettler, 1882.[31]
Children: (a)
 
Albert Townshead, born 1861, Goulburn, NSW.[5,53] Died 1935, Burwood, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Kathleen Spiers, 1886, Goulburn, NSW.[5,53]
Children: (1)
 
Reginald D. Townsend, born 1888, Goulburn, NSW.[5] Died 1899, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(2)
Eileen A. Townsend, born 1890, Goulburn, NSW.[5] Married Arthur L. Stewart, 1909, Glebe, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(b)
Alice Townsend, born 6/2/1863, Towrang ('Tourang'), Goulburn, NSW.[5,31] Died 10/11/1939, 110 Lakemba Street, Lakemba, Sydney, NSW.[5,31] Buried at Methodist Cemetery Woronora, Sydney, NSW.[31] Married George John Clissold, 20/2/1882, Goulburn, NSW,[5,11,31] with the consent of her father.[31] George was a labourer, 1882, bootmaker at the time of his death.[31] {See below for photograph's of the Clissold family}
Children: (1)
 
Alice M. Clissold, born 1883, Goulburn, NSW.[5,31] Died 1884, Goulburn, NSW.[5,31]
(2)
Hilda Annie Clissold, born 20/10/1884, George Street, Goulburn, NSW.[5,31] Died 7/9/1936, St George District Hospital, Kogarah, Sydney, NSW.[5,31] At the time of her death resided 35 Queen Victoria Street, Bexley, Sydney, NSW.[31] Married Ernest Albert Baker, 26/5/1905, Methodist Church, Kogarah, Sydney, NSW.[5,31] Ernerst the s/o Robert Baker & Jane White.[31]
(3)
Amy Beatrice Clissold, born 1888, Redfern, Sydney, NSW.[5,31] Died 24/11/1942, St George District Hospital, Kogarah, Sydney, NSW.[5,31] Married Theo Tye, 1911, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5,31]
(4)
Ernest Albert George Clissold, born 1899, Kogarah, Sydney, NSW.[5,31] Died 1961, Camden, NSW.[5,31] Married 1st Christina W. Hynd, 1925, Burwood, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married 2nd Ethel Halley Hall, 1945, Manilla, NSW.[5]
(c)
Elizabeth Matilda Townsend, born 1865, Goulburn, NSW.[5,31] Died 1911, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married James Stickings, 1887, Redfern, Sydney, NSW.[5]
Children: (1)
 
Thomas Leslie Stickings, born 1888, Goulburn, NSW.[5] Died 1912, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(2)
Frederick J. Stickings, born 1890, Ashfield, NSW.[5] Died 1891, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(3)
Ellen M. Stickings, born 1892, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Reuben Spencer, 1911, Hurstville, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(4)
Albert Henry Stickings, born 1899, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1913, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(d)
Emma J. L. Townsend, born 1866, Goulburn, NSW.[5] Married Henry W. Braden, 1888, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
Children: (1)
 
Frederick J. Braden, born 1892, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1893, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(2)
Grace E. Braden, born 1894, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(3)
Walter C. Braden, born 1899, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(4)
Dora Braden, born 1901, Balmain South, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(5)
Allan H. G. Braden, born 1908, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(6)
Arthur A. Braden. Died 1927, Redfern, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(e)
Arthur E. Townsend, born 1868, Goulburn, NSW.[5,31] Died 1871, Goulburn, NSW.[5]
(f)
Isabella Townsend. Died 1870, Goulburn, NSW.[5]
(g)
Harriet Amelia Townsend, born 1871, Goulburn, NSW.[5] Married James FOX, 1891, Goulburn, NSW.[5]
(h)
Sarah Emily Townsend, born 1873, Goulburn, NSW.[5,31]
(i)
Edith Florence Townsend, born 1876, Goulburn, NSW.[5,31] Died 1940, Liverpool, Sydney, NSW.[5,31] Married Willoughby T. Young, 1904, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
Children: (1)
 
Edna F. Young, born, 1905, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Harold T. Knight, 1934, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(2)
Winifred E. Young, born 1907, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1907, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(3)
Frank W. Young, born, 1909, St Peter's, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(4)
Mavis E. Young, born 1914, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(j)
Joseph T. Townsend, born 1877, Goulburn, NSW.[5,31] Married Maud M. Durie, 1907, Marrickville, Sydney, NSW.[5]
Children: (1)
 
Albert E. Townsend, born 1907, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Christina L. Tome, 1935, Marrickville, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(2)
Linda R. Townsend, born 1909, Rockdale, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(3)
Emma Thelma Townsend, born 1912, Rockdale, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Stanley Rupert Barton, 1939, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(4)
Harold Leslie Townsend, born 1913, Rockdale, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Thelma Iris Daphne Armitage, 1844, Redfern, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(5)
Victor Townsend, born 1918, Rockdale, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(k)
Walter Ernest Townsend, born 1879, Goulburn, NSW.[5,31] Married Elizabeth Gorham, 1900, Sydney, NSW. [5,31]
(l)
Elsie Mabel Townsend, born 1883, Goulburn, NSW.[5,31] Married Frederick F. Freeland, 1906, Glebe, Sydney, NSW.[5]

ii.

Elizabeth Adams, baptised 1846, St Peter's C/E, Cook's River, St Peters, Sydney, Sydney, NSW.[5,9,31] Possibly died before 1850.

iii.

Eliza Jane Adams, baptised 1850, St Peter's C/E, Cook's River, St Peters, Sydney, NSW.[5,9,31] Married Adam Sharpe, 1869, Sydney, NSW.[5]
Children: (a)
 
Mary Jane Sharpe, born 1870, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married John Henry Hamilton Hume, 1889, Rockdale, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(b)

Eliza Ann Sharpe, born 1872, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(c)

Sarah Florence Sharpe, born 1876, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1876, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(d)

Ellen B. Sharpe, born  1877, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1878, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(e)

Thomas Sharpe, born 1879, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Amelia H. Smith, 1902, Newcastle, NSW.[5]
(f)

Emily Eveline Sharpe, born 1881, Sydney, NSW.[5]

iv.

John Adams, baptised 1852, C/E Camperdown, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5,9,31] Died 1935, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Margaret Louisa Curr, 1873, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
Children: (a)
 
Florence Violet Adams, born 1874, Concord, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(b)
Edward J. J. Adams, born 1877, Concord, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(c)
Frank Westhorp Adams, born 1879, Concord, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(d)
Arthur Joseph Adams, born 1881, Goulburn, NSW.[5]
(e)
Emily M. Adams, born 1883, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(f)
Frederick William Adams, born 1885, Canterbury, Sydney, NSW.[5] "On New Year's Day 1913, Lilian Lambert, an actress, was shot by her jealous lover who was "passionately fond of her", who had changed his religion for her & was engaged to marry her but had found out that she had married Joseph Lambert. Her lover was Frederick William Adams. Frederick was Lilian's cousin (s/o John & Margaret) & was sentenced to death, which was subsequently reduced to 12 years at Darlinghurst gaol."[51]

v.

Edmund Adams, born 1856, O'Connell Town (a district of Newtown), Sydney, NSW.[5,31] Died 1893, Petersham, Sydney, NSW.[5]

vi.
Mary Louisa Adams, born 1858, Glebe, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1948, Concord, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married William T. Crawford, 1888, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
Children: (a)
 
Ida M. Crawford, 1889, Glebe, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Roy D. H. Dunlop, 1909, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(b)
Evelyn H. W. Crawford, 1890, Glebe, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Arthur Richmond, 1916, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[5]

vii.
Frederick William Adams, born 1860, Goldburn, NSW.[5,31,32] Died 1883, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5,32]

viii.
Emily Australia Adams, born 1862, Goldburn, NSW.[5,31,32,52] Died 1952, Burwood, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Henry Edward Chater, 1890, Sydney, NSW.[5,52] Henry was a bootmaker,[52] s/o George & Sarah, died 1941, Granville, Sydney, NSW.[5]
Children: (a)
 
Vivian Wilfred Chater, born 1892, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5,52] Died 1962, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Ruby B. Cameron, 1911, Petersham, Sydney, NSW.[5]
Children: (1)
 
Stanley Vivian Chater, born 1914, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Jenny Ethel Easton, 1942, Burwood, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(2)
Sheila M. Chater, born 1917, Burwood, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Douglas Desmond Duncan, 1940, Burwood, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(b)
Doris May Chater, born 1899, St Peters, Sydney, NSW.[5,52] Died 1937, Little Bay, Sydney, NSW (50yo).[5] Married Arthur Edward Blakey,[52] 1918, Burwood, Sydney, NSW.[52] Arthur, s/o Benjamin & Jessie Louise, died 1957, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[5]
Children: (1)
 
Bruce Vivian Blakey.[52]
(2)
Morea Allman Blakey, born 1928.[52] Married Alan Clive Grosvenor, 1946, Burwood, Sydney, NSW.[5]

ix.
Ada Matilda Adams, born 1864, Goulburn, NSW.[5,31,56] Died 11/11/1965, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5,51] Ada "was a very proper lady, always dressed in black and you always had to watch your p's and q's around her or you would be told, was the President of the Ladies Auxiliary for Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and received an MBE for her work the year before she died in 1965 at the age of 101."[51]
 "Mrs Ada M. Lannen, MBE. We are very sorry to report that after some years in a private hospital Mrs Lannen died on the 11th November in her 102nd year. Mrs Lannen joined the RPAH Auxillary on its formation in 1920 and had a most distinguished record of service until 1960, when illness prevented her from carrying on. Indeed for variety of interests she was the outstanding member. Her activities over 40 years covered all phases of the Auxillary's work. She began as Supervisor of the Hospital Sewing Circle, trhen became supervisor of the Showgroung Tearoom, the Hospital's Tearoom (closed on the opening of the Boutique), Outpatients' Buffet and over the years managed many Fetes and Charity Stalls. Mrs Lannen was most enthuiastic in everything she did, spending days each week in the interests of the hospital. Every possible honour was awarded to Mrs Lannen by the Auxillary in recognition of her devoted and extensive services. She was a Councillor for 45 years, one of the first Life Members to be appointed in 1951, an Honorary Life Governor of the Hospital since 1921 and was the only Patroness of the Showground and Women's Auxillary. In January 1964, Her Majesty the Queen awarded Mrs Lannen an M.B.E., thus she became the first lady member of the Auxillary to have her services recognised with a decoration. The R.P.A.H. Auxillary was the first Hospital Auxillary to be formed in Australia and it is extremely unlikely that Mrs Lannen's record of services in so many spheres, spread over 40 years, could have been equalled anywhere in the Commonwealth."[56] 
Married Richard William Lannen, 1886, Leichhardt, Sydney, NSW.[5,56] Resided 1909-1910, 67 London Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] Richard, s/o William & Elizabeth, died 1910, Orange, NSW, Australia.[5,56] Richard died at age 46 of heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver and renal TB.[51] Richard's will excluded Lilian and Clement and stipulated that the remaining siblings were to be educated at Roman Catholic schools and 'not brought up with a view of adopting the stage or the trust was to cease paying any further income to his wife.[51]
Children: (a)
 
Lilian Mary 'Diddy' Lannen, born 1887, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1975.[5] "On New Year's Day 1913, Lilian Lambert, an actress, was shot by her jealous lover who was "passionately fond of her", who had changed his religion for her & was engaged to marry her but had found out that she had married Joseph Lambert. Her lover was Frederick William Adams. Frederick was Lilian's cousin (s/o John & Margaret) & was sentenced to death, which was subsequently reduced to 12 years at Darlinghurst gaol."[51] Married Joseph Lambert, 1912, Woollahra, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[5]
(b)
Clement John Lannen, born 1889, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1965, Auburn, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(c)
Ursula Maria Lannen, born 1892, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[56] Died 1920, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5,56] Married Cyril Joseph Solomon, 1914, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5,56]
(d)
Vincent Joseph B. Lannen, born 1895, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1961, Marrickville, Sydney, NSW.[5,51] "Was at the landing at Gallipoli, at the age of twenty. He was shot through the head sometime between the 25th April and the 30th when the first roll call was conducted and lay on the field for three days so the blood congealed and saved his life. He was to suffer all through his life with what is now known as war neurosis and died in 1961, was smoking in bed, had been drinking and the mattress caught fire and he died of smoke inhalation. He was staying with his mother in Ashfield at the time."[51] Married May Bertrand Farrell, 1921, Sydney, NSW.[5,56] Divorced, 1940.[56] Married 2nd Holly Grace Keane, 1940, Ashfield, Sydney, NSW.[56] Holly died 1990, Bankstown, Sydney, NSW.[56]
(e)
Marie Dorothea Lannen, born 1897, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5,56] Married Henry F. Le Poer Trench, 1918, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5,51] Henry died 1936.[51]
(f)
Richard Eric Lannen, born 1899, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1927, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Did not marry.[56]

x.
Alice A. Adams, born 1867, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5,31] Married Albert E. Hopkins, 1887, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
Resided 1888-1889, No 7, Carrington Cottages, Edgeware Road, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] Resided 1890, No. 72 Hordern Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42]
Children: (a)
 
Muriel A. Hopkins, born 1888, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married John Stevenson, 1911, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(b)
Ethel M. Hopkins, born 1890, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married James H. Atkins, 1915, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(c)
Harold G. Hopkins, born 1894, St Peter's, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Dorothy I. Walshe, 1928, Sydney, NSW.[5]

xi.
Albert Edward Adams, born 1871, St George, Sydney, NSW.[5,31] Died 1956 (84yo), Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Florence L. Dowse, 1898, Musswellbrook, NSW.[5]
Children: (a)
 
Alma I. M. Adams, born 1898, Musswellbrook, NSW.[5]
(b)
Maxwell James Adams, born 1900, Singleton, NSW.[5] Married Thelma Elaine Holmes, 1936, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(c)
Colin Ernest Adams, born 1902, Singleton, NSW.[5] Died 1966, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Kathleen R. Branagan, 1931, Granville, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(d)
Arnold A. Adams, born 1903, Singleton, NSW.[5]
(e)
Mertin S. H. Adams, born 1908, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(f)
Myrtle M. Adams, born 1910, Chatswood, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married William C. O. Forster, 1929, Burwood, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(g)
Alan T. Adams, born 1913, St Peter's, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(h)
Gwendoline Florence Adams, born 1915, St Peter's, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married Andrew Newel Carruthers, 1938, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(i)
Joyce E. Adams, born 1917, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Married James Lawton, 1934, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(j)
Phyllis C. Adams, born 1920, Annandale, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1920, Annandale, Sydney, NSW.[5]

Clissold Family, c.1920
 (see below)

Image - Jenny Rose
Alma Baker &
Hilda Annie Clissold

Image - Jenny Rose
St Peters, Cooks River
Image - Wikipedia
Methodist Church (now Uniting), Goulburn
Image - David Lim
Ada Lannen nee Adams, MBE
Ada Lannen, MBE
Image - Margaret Holmes

Clissold Family, c.1920. Rear row (L to R): Hilda Annie Clissold, Alma Baker, Alice Clissold (nee Townsend). Middle: Harriet Townsend (Adams). Front (L to R): June & Reg Hampton, taken c.1920.[Jenny Rose] The parish of St Peters, Cooks River was named after the river which flows through it. On 13/5/1838 the first service was conducted in a temporary church. The foundation stone of the present church was laid on 7/7/1838 and the building was completed 11/1839. St Peters is one of the oldest churches in the suburbs of Sydney. Built of sun-dried bricks by free labour.[St Peters] St Peters is a suburb in the inner west of Sydney. It was named by its association with St Peters Anglican Church, the third oldest Anglican church in Sydney and has been claimed to be the first church built in Australia using non-convict labour. The first large land grant in the area was made in 1799 to Provost-Marshal Thomas Smyth. His 470 acres stretched from the Cooks River to the present Campbell Street. After his death in 1804, the land was acquired by Robert Campbell (1769-1836), a wealthy merchant who built some of the early warehouses along the Sydney Cove waterfront. Alexander Brodie Spark (1792-1856), was a wealthy merchant who named the suburbs of Tempe after his mansion Tempe House that he built at what is now Wolli Creek and the suburb of St Peters that developed around the church. Barwon Park House was a large residence erected by Spark in 1815 on land leased from Robert Campbell and was demolished in 1953. Robert Campbell sold his property in 1830 but reserved land for the church. St Peters was described in the 1840s as one of the most fashionable and aristocratic suburbs of Sydney.[Wikipedia]

67 London St, Newtown
67 London St, Newtown
Image - Margaret Holmes
Ada Adams, WW1 Nurse
Ada Adams, WW1 Nurse
Image - Margaret Holmes
Ada & Vince Lannen, 1910s
Ada & Vince Lannen, 1910s
Image - Margaret Holmes
Vincent Lannen
Vincent Lannen
Image - Margaret Holmes

Holly Keane
Holly Keane
Margaret Holmes
Auburn Street, Goulburn, 1880
Image -  
Goulburn History
Terraces, Missenden Road, Newtown, c.1970's
Image
- Newtown Project
Longdown St, Newtown, c.1970's
Image - City of Sydney

Goulburn. Named after Henry Goulburn, Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, it is the oldest provincial city in Australia, becoming a municipality in 1859, and a city on 14/3/1863. The honour of discovering the Goulburn district is usually given to Surveyor James Meehan who, accompanied by the explorer Hamilton Hume, reached what he called 'Lake Bathurst and Goulburn Downs' in 1818. John Oxley and Governor Macquarie, on separate expeditions, both passed close to the site of Goulburn in 1820, Macquarie noting of the Goulburn Plains that it was 'a most beautiful rich tract of country extending from Breadalbane Plains on the north to fine open forest on the south... fit for both purposes of cultivation and grazing, with a plentiful supply of fresh water ponds, and hardly a tree to be seen in this whole extent of plain, but with plenty of good timber on the hills and ridges which gird these plains like a belt.' Macquarie named the area 'Argyle', in honour of his native Scotland; for many years, the Goulburn electorate for the State legislative assembly was "known as Argyle. Goulburn's first settlement plan was drawn up in 1828. Sir Richard Bourke, Governor from 1832, did not care for the site, and ordered a new one to be created to the southwest. This site became the modern 'heart' of Goulburn, but the original plan to the north persisted, and is the reason why even today a streetmap of the city appears to show two distinct regions. Charles MacAlister tells us in his Old Pioneering Days in the Sunny South (1907) that 'Goulburn in the early forties was simply a little bark-roofed frontier town, a tablelands outpost'. It was also a garrison town, with very few women, and a rough atmosphere. MacAlister estimated that Goulburn had 1200 inhabitants in 1848, the number being added to 'almost weekly' by 'new comers ... and liberated ticket-of-leave men.' The Argyle district quickly became productive, in the earliest days as grazing, then as agricultural land. It was only in the 1860s, with the opening up of the western wheat belt, that pastoral industries again became predominant. In the drought of 1838-1840, it was Goulburn which kept the city of Sydney from near starvation. The atmosphere at the time was brutal; gallows were erected in Goulburn as early as 1832 and floggings were commonplace. Many of the labourers and servants employed on the early landholdings were assigned convicts, or partly emancipated convicts known as 'ticket of leave' men. Pioneering life was both hard and hazardous. 'Farms and stations ran on human and animal musclepower, and the life of most people was one of unrelieved toil. There were natural hazards droughts, fires and floods - and, as the district grew richer, man-made ones as well in the form of bushrangers. The first 'bushrangers' were, in fact, escaped convicts. From the 1850s, gold, and the still precarious rule of law, brought an upsurge of robberies by gangs who disappeared into the bush, where they were able to elude the police. Some of these bushrangers, such as the lengendary Ben Hall became popular heroes, whose deeds were celebrated in folk songs. Goulburn's 'roaring days' must have resembled those of the American wild west, at least if MacAlister's accounts of shootouts in bark huts and 'bail-ups' can be believed. The arrival of the railway from Sydney in 1869 connected Goulburn far more closely to the metropolis and signalled the end of Goulburn's lawless days.[Goulburn History] The Wesleyean Methodist Chapel was originally built in 1848 and is part of what is now the Wesley Centre. Due to a growing congregation, construction of a new church commenced in 1869, with the Rev. William Curnow performing the dedication 25/10/1871. The present building was built of brick and cement render. A 30 metre spire is shingled with metal and a new gallery was added in 1881.[Sign outside church] Towrang is a small village about 13 km north of Goulburn. The area was first crossed by European explorers Wilson, Collins, and Price in 1798. In the early 1800s various journeys of discovery were undertaken, but as to when Towrang was actually settled is unclear. In the 1820s Governor Brisbane gave “Tickets of Occupation” for people wishing to purchase land. One such ticket was to Richard Farrington for land known as “Tourong”. In 1836 James Backhouse’s diary stated, “we passed a few small huts, forming the village of Towrang”. A major stockade for chain-bound convicts and others involved in the construction of the Great South Road was located on the north side of the Hume Highway at Towrang Creek from around 1836 to 1842. The stockade was the major penal settlement in southern New South Wales and enforced harsh discipline. Around 250 convicts slept there on bare boards with a blanket each and 10 men to a cell. One of the floggers was later murdered. The area was once a large producer of fruit for the Sydney market. The railway station opened in 1869 and was one of the busiest in the state. The historic Community Hall, Rural Fire Service facility, St. John’s Anglican Church and the Recreation Park are located in the middle of the village. The Towrang Public School, opened in 1859. Postal services were begun in Towrang in 1869.[Wikipedia, Towrang]



Joseph Joshua Atkins
Image - David Powell
1.3.1.2.3. Margaret Agnes Allman, born 3/8/1830, Parramatta, NSW,[6,9,20,21,41] and baptised 9/1/1831, St John, C/E, Parramatta, NSW (registered as Horman).[5,9,22,41] Minister officiating baptism was Rev. Samuel Marsden.[21] Died during childbirth, 25/7/1865, Canningalla, Bendolba, NSW.[5,6,20,41] Buried 27/7/1865, Dungog Cemetery, Anley's Flat, NSW,[6,20] according to the rites of the CoE by Rev. F. D. Bode.[20] Married Joseph Joshua Atkins, 19/3/1846, by banns with the consent of the Governor (Margaret was a minor), at Clarence Town (near Raymond Terrace), in the parish of Affington, NSW,[5,6,9,15,20,25,41] by Rev Charles Spinar (or Spencer,[15,25] witnesses were Joseph Hobart & Richard Cox, both of Clarence Town, bride & groom were illiterate.[5,25] At the time both Joseph & Margaret gave Dungog, NSW, as their places of abode.[41] Joseph Joshua
Joseph Atkins I, II, III & IV, c.1905
Image - David Powell
Atkins was born Bedmond, Co Hertfordshire,[6,26,28] & baptised 26/6/1814, St Lawrence the Martyr, Abbots Langley, County Hertfordshire, England.[6,26,28,48] Was a farm labourer in England.[28,43] Joseph was convicted along with his brother, Benjamin, at the Oxford Assizes for housebreaking, 15/1/1838;[14,28,43,44,45]:
      "The Jurors for our Lady the Queen upon their oath present that Benjamin Atkins late of the parish of Swyncombe in the County of Oxford, labourer, guilty, to be transported beyond the seas for fifteen years, William Lichfield, late of the same, labourer, guilty, to be transported beyond the seas for fifteen years, Joshua Atkins, late of the same, labourer, guilty, to be transported beyond the seas for fifteen years, and Jonathan Carrington, late of the same, labourer, guilty, to be transported beyond the seas for fifteen years, on the third day of January in the year of our lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty eight with force and arms at the Parish aforesaid in the County aforesaid the dwelling house of Thomas Hambling there situate feloniously did break and enter and [steal] one jacket of the value of five shillings, one waistcoat of the value of two shillings, one handkerchief of the value of one shilling, one tobacco box of the value of sixpence, one pipe of the value of sixpence, one snuff box of the value of sixpence and one pair of gloves of the value of sixpence of the goods and chattels of the said Thomas Hambling in the same dwelling house then and there being found housebreaking then and there feloniously did steal take and carry away against the peace of our said Lady thr Queen her crown and dignity. PAG (initialed)."[45]
they were originally sentenced to hang, but the sentence was commuted to 15 years transportation to NSW, Australia.[14,15,28,43,44] Departed Portsmouth, England, 31/7/1838,[12] on the "Portsea", arriving Sydney, NSW, 18/12/1838.[12,14,15,27,28,43,44] Joseph could read, was a protestant.[45] He was 5'5", with a fair ruddy & freckled complexion, light brown hair and hazel-grey eyes.[45] Also had "breast and arms much freckled, scar on upper part of nose, near the left eyebrow, scar on back of fore finger of right hand, mark of a burn on back of third, and scar on back of fore finger of left hand".[45] Joseph received his Ticket of Leave 11/1/1845 (No.45/98), being restricted to the Dungog area and placed under his wife's supervision.[44] On 10/6/1850 he received a conditional pardon (No.50/248), granted by the governor, Sir Charles Augusta Fitz Roy.[44] After settling in the Dungog region, Joseph worked as a farmer[27,46] and was the station manager of "Canningalla" Station, near Bandon Grove, for some 58 years.[37] The station belonged to the Dowling family and remains in that family as recently as 2005.[37] On his 50th anniversary as manager, Joseph was presented with a silver cup by Mr. Vince Dowling.[37] After the death of his second wife Joseph, who was by then suffering from dementia, went to live with his daughter, Isabella, and her husband.[37] According to Joseph's obituary, he arrived in the Dungog district in 1837.[26] Since he left England in 1838,[12] he was evidently placed into service in the district upon arrival, remaining there the rest of his life. After Margaret died Joseph remarried to Jane Thompson, 1866, Durham, NSW.[5,27] Joseph died 6/9/1905,[5,6,26,27,28,47] Dowling Street, Dungog, NSW,[37] and was buried, 7/9/1905,[27] in the Church of England Cemetery, Bendolba [6,26,27,37] Cause of death was "senile decay and debility".[27] Joseph settled in the Dungog district, 1838 and moved to Sir James Dowling's Canningalla Station in 1847,[28,37] where he and his family remained until 1905.[37]

Children of Margaret Agnes Allman and Joseph Atkins: (For further generations refer to the Atkins charts)

i.
 
Joseph Albert Atkins, born 24/4/1846,[20,27] Bandon Grove, NSW.[28,29] Baptised 1846, Butterwick-Hinton Presbyterian, NSW.[5]

ii.

John Atkins, born 19/12/1847, Canningalla, NSW.[20,27,28,29]

iii.

Louisa Atkins, born 25/8/1849, Canningalla, NSW.[6,20,27,28]

iv.

Samuel Atkins, born 7/10/1851, Canningalla, NSW.[20,27,28,29]

v.

William Samuel Atkins, born 5/6/1853,[20,27] Canningalla, NSW.[5,28,30]

vi.
Sarah Matilda Atkins, born 17/4/1854,[20,27] Canningalla, NSW.[28,29]

vii.
Emma Jane Atkins, born 10/10/1856,[20,27] Canningalla, NSW.[5,28,29]

viii.
Mary Ann Atkins, born 9/5/1858, Canningalla, NSW.[20,27,28,29]

ix.
Charlotte Winifred Atkins, born 8/11/1859, Canningalla, NSW.[5,20,27,28,29]

x.
George Benjamin Atkins, born 29/7/1861,[20,27] Canningalla, NSW.[5,28,29]

xi.
Amelia Atkins, born 17/6/1863,[20,27] Canningalla, NSW.[5,28,29]

xii.
Sarah Jane Atkins, born 1865, Canningalla, NSW.[5,29]

St Lawrence Church, Abbots Langley
Image - Nigel Cox, Geograph
High Street, Bedmond, Hertford, 1905
Image
- Towns & Villages in Hertford
High St, opposite church, Abbots Langley, c.1905
Image - Towns & Villages in Hertford

Bedmond is a small hamlet about 1-2km north of Abbots Langley. Until 1889 it did not have its own church and prior to this the citizens had to travel to nearby Abbots Langley for their ecclesiastical needs. Bedmond's sole claim to fame is that it was the birthplace of Nicholas Breakspear or Breakspeare (1100-1159). Nicholas was better known as Adrian IV (or Hadrian IV), pope from 1154-1159. Adrian IV is the only Englishman to have occupied the papal chair. It is generally believed that Nicholas Breakspear was born at Breakspear Farm. Breakspear Farm was demolished in the 1950's to make way for a housing estate. As a young man Nicholas was refused admission into the local monastery. He travelled to Paris and entered the abbey of St Rufus near Arles, becomming prior in 1137 and eventually the abbot. In the 1140's he was made a cardinal bishop and in 1152 a papal legate and then finally becomming the pope in 1154.[Wikipedia] Abbots Langley is a large village in the county of Hertfordshire. It is an old settlement and is mentioned (under the name of Langelai) in the Domesday Book. This village has had a long history of successful human habitation. In 1045 the Saxon thegn Ethelwine 'the black' granted the upper part of Langlai to St Albans Abbey as Langlai Abbatis, the remainder being the king's Langlai. By the time of the Domesday Book in 1086 the village was inhabited by 19 families.[Wikipedia] The site of Abbots Langley Parish Church was probably originally occupied by a Saxon Church. A Norman nave and aisles were added in the 1140's and the Church was dedicated to St Lawrence the Martyr in 1154. The tower was built between 1190-1200. The south east Corpus Christi Chapel was built between 1307-1327. The Saxon church fell into decay and in 1400 was replaced by the present chancel building.[History of Abbots Langley parish church] Corbels from which the roof rafters spring are carved to represent friars in various grotesque attitudes and there are medieval wall paintings on each side of the east window of the Corpus Christ Chapel: one is of St.Lawrence, who was martyred by being roasted alive, holding a grid-iron![Hertford Genealogy]

St John's Anglican Church, Clarence Town
Image - Cemeteries Index
Homestead, William's Valley (possibly Canningalla)
Image
- No Tillegra Dam
Sir James Dowling, 1840
Painting - National Library Aust.

Clarence Town is a small town on the Williams River at the northern edge of the Hunter Valley District. When the river system was the main mode of transport within Australia, Clarence Town, being located at the Williams River's head of navigation, was a busy and important river port. Until the railway arrived it was effectively the gateway to northern NSW. Clarence Town was initially known as Erringhi and was in existence by 1826. Clarence Town's main claim to fame was that this was the spot where, in 1831, Australia's first ocean-going paddle steamer (called the William IV) was built and launched. The village was renamed in 1832 after the Duke of Clarence (who became King William IV in 1830). It was a prosperous town by the mid-1800's. Following on from the general economic depression of the 1890s floods hit for four consecutive years and a fire destroyed much of the town. When the railway arrived in 1911 Clarence Town was bypassed and its importance as a centre of exchange vanished.[Walkabout] "Canningalla" was a large property on the Williams River in the Bandon Grove area which was aquired in 1828 by the Dowling family and remains in the family today. There were tenant cottages in the 1800's for the many tenant farmers. The Atkins lived in one of these tenant cottages (none of which, alas, remain). "Canningalla" today is not as large as it was back then as land was sold to other farmers. Dairy farming ceased on Canningalla in 1985. Today a B&B is operated by Bill Dowling on the estate. Sir James Dowling, the first owner, was a Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of NSW, 1837-1844, in Sydney and his son ran the property.[49]

St Peter's Anglican Church, Bendolba
Image - Barrington Tops
Dungog, February 1909
Image - State Library NSW
Bendolba Cemetery
Image - Maitland Family History

Dungog is a moderate-sized country town with a typically wide main street. It is located in a valley surrounded by rolling hills adjacent the Williams River. With a current population of 2500 it is essentially a cattle-raising, dairying and timber town and a service centre for the surrounding area. Dungog is thought to have meant 'place of thinly wooded hills' in the local aboriginal language. The first Europeans in the area are thought to have been stockmen in search of wayward cattle. The thick stands of cedar in the area soon drew timbergetters. One account concerns a cedar tree with a circumference of nearly 9 metres which it was estimated would yield 9 km of timber. The initial property grant was made by Governor Darling in 1824. The first grant to the north was made to James D. Dowling in 1828 (Canningalla) - Dungog's main street is named after Dowling. The land for a township to be named Upper Williams was set aside in 1830 but the name 'Dungog' was adopted in 1834. At this time the settlers petitioned the authorities for a military post to deal with bushranging in the area. Captain Thunderbolt and his wife had been involved in plundering local homesteads. Ben Hall's gang, The Governors and the Jew Boy Gang were also active in the area. The hilly terrain made for natural cover. Hence the town courthouse was built between 1835 and 1838 as a barracks and stables for troopers who successfully drove Thunderbolt out of the area. A town plan was approved in 1838. A school, built in 1843 and by 1850 the town was well-established and of good reputation. Timbercutting remained a central focus of the local economy into the 1860s when it was supplemented by a tannery, a tobacco factory and a flour mill. The railway arrived in 1911.[Walkabout]


1.3.1.2.4. Emma J. Allman, baptised 1835, St John's, Parramatta, NSW.[5,9] Died 1914, Balmain South, Sydney, NSW (parents listed as John & Margaret).[5] Married Edgar Adams, 1851, St Lawrence, Sydney, NSW.[5] Edgar born 1814 (not in NSW), died 1889, Goulburn, NSW (75yo).[5] Edgar was a tailor, 1866-1882.[42] Married 2nd Abraham J. Ballard, 1890, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Abraham, s/o Abraham Sr & Sarah Ballard, was born 1850, Carcoar, NSW, baptised 1850, St Saviours (Co Argyle), Bungonia/Lake Bathurst/Marulan, NSW and died 1923, Redfern, Sydney, NSW.[5] Abraham was a blacksmith, 1897-1898.[42] {It is a bit odd that there appear to be no children for Emma & Edgar between John & George, however a thorough search of the Australian BMD indices has failed to reveal any other children, even searching for deaths between 1900-1975 with parents Emma & Edgar Adams} Emma & Edgar resided 1866, Newtown Road, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] Resided 1869-1873, Oxford Street (between Albemarle & Bishopgate Street's), Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] Resided 1876, Hordern Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] Resided 1879-1882, No.22, Egan Street (between Victoria & Prospect Streets), Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] Emma & Edgar were not in Newtown from 1884,[42] presumably they had moved to Goulburn where Edgar died in 1889. Abraham resided 1889, No.70, Wellington Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] Emma & Abraham resided 1892-1893, No.31, Albemarle Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] Resided 1897-1898, No.58, Australia Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] Emma resided 1899, Camden Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42]

Children of Emma Allman & Edgar Adams:

i.
 
Joseph John[42] Adams, born 1852, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1876, Newtown, Sydney, NSW (s/o Edgar & Emma).[5] Joseph John resided 1876, Hordern Street, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[42] Married Elizabeth Biggs, 1874, Sydney, NSW.[5]
Children: (a)
 
Emily Eliza Adams, born 1875, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1875, Sydney, NSW.[5]

ii.

George Edgar T. A. Adams, born 1879, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1927, Randwick, Sydney, NSW [5] Married 1st Clara E. McIntosh, 1905, Manly, Sydney, NSW.[5] Clara died 1912, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW (d/o Alfred & Elizabeth).[5] Married 2nd Martha E. Porter, 1915, Newcastle, NSW.[5] There were two George Adams living in Newtown in the early 1900's: George T. Adams, resided 1899-1903 No.65 Alice St, Newtown and 1904-1905 No.63 Alice St, Newtown; George Adams, resided 1901-1903, No.46 Reiby St, Newtown, 1904-1906, No.29 Reiby St, Newtown & 1907-1909, No.5 Baltic St, Newtown.[42] Either could fit George Edgar T. Adams who was known to be in Newtown at the time.
Children: (a)
 
Alfred Adams, born 1905, Newtown, Sydney, NSW.[5]
(b)
Reginald George McIntosh Adams, born 1911, Mosman, Sydney, NSW.[5] Died 1976, NSW.[5] Married Magan Olive Evans, 1937, North Sydney, NSW [5]
(c)
Herbert Edward Adams, born 1915, Rockdale, Sydney, NSW [5] Married Blanche Beryl Hickey, 1939, Rockdale, Sydney, NSW [5]
(d)
James Porter Adams, born 1918, Burwood, Sydney, NSW [5] Married Phyllis Hilda Wheatley, 1941, Gloucester, NSW [5]

Shops, Oxford Street, Newtown 1890
Image - Soul Patterson & Co
5-11 Egan St, Newtown
Image - Billabong Gardens
24 Albemarle St, Newtown
Image - Ardmore House
186 Australia St, Newtown
Image - Colonial State Reality

Since the 1840s, when the Newtown area began to change from a rural to a commercial and residential landscape, it has been home to a very diverse community, which is evidenced by the styles of domestic architecture. The few remaining houses of the 1830s and 1840s range from "Golden Grove" on Forbes Street to tiny and austere "working-men's" cottages in Hordern Street. The main street of Newtown, King Street, reputedly follows an ancient Aboriginal track that branched out from the main western track, now beneath Broadway and Parramatta Road, and which continued all the way to the shores of Botany Bay. Newtown was established as a residential and farming area in the early 19th century. The area took its name from a general store opened there by John and Eliza Webster in 1832, near where the Newtown railway station stands today. They placed a sign on top of their store that read "New Town Stores". The name New Town was adopted, at first unofficially, with the space disappearing to form the name Newtown. That part of Newtown lying south of King Street was portion of the two estates granted by Governor Arthur Phillip to the Superintendent of Convicts, Nicholas Devine. In 1827, when Devine was about 90, this land was acquired from him by a convict, Bernard Rochford, who sold it to many of Sydney's wealthiest and most influential inhabitants including the Mayor. Upon Devine's death in 1830 his heir challenged the will which was blatantly fraudulent. The case (known as "The Newtown Ejectment Case") was eventually settled out of court by the payment to Devine's heir of an unknown sum of money said to have been "considerable". The land was further divided into the housing that is now evidenced by the rows of terrace houses and commercial and industrial premises. In 1862 the Municipality of Newtown was incorporated and divided into three wards: O'Connell (also known as O'Connell Town), Kingston and Enmore. Although there are a few earlier buildings in Newtown the most rapid development occurred in the late 1800s, with many former farms and other large properties being subdivided and developed as row-houses, known popularly as "terrace houses". From about 1870 onwards, Newtown had a large proportion of its residents living in terrace houses of the cheapest possible construction, much of which were "two-up two-down" with rear kitchen, some having adjoining walls only one brick thick and a continuous shared roofspace. Hundreds of these terrace houses still remain, generally only 4 metres wide. It was not uncommon for speculative builders to build a row of these small houses terminating in a house of 1 1/2 width at the corner of the street, this last being a commercial premises, or "Corner Store". This preponderance of small houses is indicative of the working-class employment of most of the Newtown residents, many of whom worked in the city or at local shops, factories, warehouses, brickyards and at the nearby Eveleigh Railway Workshops. Retail and service trades dominated the suburb increasingly throughout this period, with tradesmen and shopkeepers together accounting for 70-75% of the working population. From the late 1800s onwards, the Newtown area became a major commercial and industrial centre. King Street developed into a thriving retail precinct and the Newtown area was soon dotted with factories, workshops, warehouses and commercial and retail premises of all kinds and sizes.[Wikipedia] Local knowledge has it that Australia Street was named after a house at the Camperdown end of the street known as Australia House. The house has since been demolished, and little is known about the property or its inhabitants. Interestingly entries in the Sands Directory for the street begin in 1858, 43 years before Federation. Australia Street was originally split between the Municipalities of Camperdown & Newtown, each using their own numbering systems. When the whole street came under the one council in 1949, the numbering was changed to a single system. The residence of Emma & Edgar was in the Newtown section.[Camperdown] Newtown Road was an informal description of the Newtown section of the Cooks River Road up until its naming as King Street in 1877. Hordern Street  in O'Connell Ward was part of the 1845 subdivision of Governor William Bligh's 1806 Camperdown Estate grant. It was named after Henry and John L. Hordern who had a drapery shop on the street and whose family owned much land in the area until the 1920s. Egan Street in O'Connell Ward was also part of the 1845 subdivision the Camperdown Estate. An early subdivision map shows a Mr L. Egan as landowner here. Daniel Egan MLA (1803-1870) was a Catholic, a wine and spirit merchant and Mayor of Sydney in 1853. Albermarle (or Albemarle) Street is in the Kingston ward and was formed prior to 1863. The most prominent house in the street is at no. 55 which is spelt as Albemarle House; it is not known if the house or the street was named first. Camden Street was named in 1865, previously known as Bowen's Lane, Bourne's lane and Campbell Street. The Congregational Church established a theological college in 1864 just north of this street. The college was named 'Camden'.[Early Newtown Streets]

61 Hordern Street, Newtown
Image - Domain Real Estate
68 Camden Street, Newtown
Image - McGrath Real Estate
King Street, Newtown
Image -  Wikimedia: J. Bar


Legal note: Geograph images are Copyright the respective authors and licensed for reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic Licence, <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/>. Wikimedia & Wikipedia media is Copyright the respective authors and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license, <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Commons:CC-BY-SA>. These licenses allow the reproduction of the abovementioned material on third-party websites without specific author permission. Under United States copyright law any work published before 1/1/1923, anywhere in the world, is in the public domain. Works also published in 2003 or later by authors who died before 1937 are public domain. Under United Kingdom copyright law images are in the public domain 70 years from the death of the author or 70 years after it was created if the author is unknown. In Australia, copyright on published images created before 1/5/1969 expired 50 years after the creation, for images creater after this date, copyright expires 50 years after the first publication. Copyright on images created after 1/1/2005 is similar to that in the United States. Any images created before 1961 are thus in the public domain in Australia. Originality of expression is necessary for copyright protection, and a mere photograph or reproduction of an out-of-copyright two-dimensional work may not be protected under copyright law. I follow the practice of the Wikimedia Foundation, which considers reproductions of public domain works to also be in the public domain, regardless of their country of origin. Claims of copyright on such images is considered invalid & without legal basis. See, for example, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Public_domain> and <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:PD-US>. Norfolk churches & Images of old Norwich used with permission


[1] Convict listings for the "Canada", arrived in Australia in 1819, information provided by Joyce Tomasi, 30/3/1997.
[2] 1828 NSW census, information from Joyce Tomasi, 20/3/1997 and Edna Watson.
[3] Norwich Mercury, 31st October 1818. From Mr C. Wilkins-Jones, Library Information Service, Norfolk County Council, 20/1/1989. Copy forwarded by Edna Watson, 26/5/1997.
[4] Trial transcript of "The King vs Francis Allman", copy supplied by Edna Watson, 26/5/1997..
[5] New South Wales, Australia Birth-Death-Marriage Indices, CD-ROM Edition.
[6] From "The Irwin Family", a package prepared for the 1987 Irwin family reunion celebrating 150 years since John Irwin arrived in Australia. Author unknown, nor are sources not cited. However, it probably draws on the work of Rev. George Irwin who assembled an Irwin family tree from parish records.
[7] "1822 Muster: General Muster and Land & Stock Muster of NSW", Carol Baxter (Ed), 1988, Soc. Aust. Genealogists. Information supplied by Edna Watson.
[8] 1834 and 1836 "NSW Calendar and General Post Office Directory", Information from Edna Watson.
[9] NSW Church of England BDM's, Soc. Aust. Genealogists. Information from Edna Watson & Joyce Tomasi.
[10] Rydalmere Psychiatric Hospital Admission Cards, NSW Archives, Kingswood, NSW. Information from Edna Watson.
[11] Information researched by Judith Cooke. Also material from Stephanie van den Dreisen. Also death certificate, Vera Alice Denney (sic).
[12] Perth Dead Persons Society web site: "Convicts to Australia - Convict Ships, 1801-1849", <http://carmen.murdoch.edu.au/community/dps/convicts/ships.html>.
[13] NSW State Records, <http://www.records.nsw.gov.au/default.htm>, "Index to Certificates of Freedom, 1823-1869" - Francis Allman, State Records Reference 4/4424, film 602.
[14] "The Convicts to Port Jackson: 1788-1842" (CD-ROM), Lesley Uebel, ISBN: 0957812809. Also - "Claim a Convict: Convicts to Port Jackson, NSW", www site maintained by Lesley Uebel, <http://users.bigpond.net.au/convicts/index.html>.
[15] "Convicts Permission to Marry: 1826-1852" (CD-ROM), Lesley Uebel, ISBN: 0957812817.
[16] Personal correspondence (written), Ian Brothers, 13/10/2000. Cites 1828 census; "The Women of Botany Bay: A Reinterpretation of the Role of Women in the Origins of Australian Society" by Portia Robinson, Macquarie Press, 1988 [2nd edition, Penguin, 1993], 994.02 POR; "The Convict Ships" by Charles Bateson, Library of Australian History, Sydney, 1983; NSW State Records, general notes on the Grenada, Vol. 2/8261, pp.361-365; 1823 & 1837 musters of convicts.
[17] Death certificate, Francis Allinan, 1843.166v27b.
[18] Marriage certificate, Francis Alman & Margaret Kelly, 1827.7.11.
[19] International Genealogical Index, LDS, CD-ROM Edition; Ba:C035243, So: 0580907. See also <http://www.familysearch.org>.
[20] Death certificate, Margaret Atkins, 1865.03592.
[21] Birth certificate, Margaret Horman (sic), 1830.16V15.
[22] Personal correspondence, Eileen Broadbridge, 15/5/1999, "Descendents of William Allman". Sourced from parish registers and bishop & archdeacon transcripts from Great Yarmouth, Casitor & Norwich, Co Norfolk, & Somerleyton, Co Suffolk; personal correspondence. Written correspondence.
[23] Musketts of Carleton Rode, Keith Muskett, updated 14/2/2007,
<http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=muskettk1&id=I866>.
[24] FreeREG, Online UK Parish Register Indices, <http://freereg.rootsweb.com/>.
[25] Marriage certificate of Joseph Atkins & Margaret Agnes Almond, 1846.488V31C. Note this is incorrectly indexed as 1846.408V31C.
[26] Obituary for Joseph Atkins Sr. in Dungog Chronicle, 8/9/1905. Details from Elaine McCord, 25/2/2005.
[27] Death certificate, Joseph Atkins, 1905.08660.
[28] Personal correspondence, Bronwyn Balfour. Sources include the work of Rev. George Irwin, Diane Harrowfield and Marilyn Smith.
[29] Information provided by Steven Simmons from the NSW BDM Indices, parish records, tombstone inscriptions at the Dungog/Bendolba Cemeteries, death certificate of Joesph Atkins Sr., a search done by Borthwick & Wilson Solicitors on 24/8/1978 & other sources.
[30] Information taken from headstone of William & Catherine Atkins, Dungog Cemetery, NSW.
[31] Personal correspondence, Jennifer Jane Rose, 13/5/2006, 18/5/2006. Sources cited: Birth/baptism certificate: Harriet Adams (1844), Alice Townsend (1863), Hilda Annie Clissold (1884); Marriage certificate: Sarah Allman (1843), Harriet Adams (1861), Alice Townsend (1882), Hilda Annie Clissold (1905); Death certificate: Harriet Townsend nee Adams (1941), Alice Clissold nee Townsend (1939), Hilda Annie Baker (1936); Assisted immigrants arriving in Sydney & Newcastle, 1844-59; Assisted immigrants arriving at Port Philip 1839-51; NSW BDM indices; Funeral Notice Amy Beatrice Tye (1942); Obituary Hilda Annie (nee Clissold) Baker.
[32] Personal correspondence, Judith Whale, 10/3/2006. No sources cited.
[33] South Australian BMD Indices, CD-ROM Edition.
[34] Personal correspondence, Colleen Watt, 14/5/2008. Birth, death & marriage certificates for Muriel Oram & Henry Mercer; family records.
[35] Amanda Taylor's Genealogy, Amanda Taylor. Updated: 21/2/2008, <http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~amandataylor/>.
[36] Marriage certificate, Margaret Allman & George Twigg. Copy from Eileen Broadbridge.
[37] Personal correspondence, Elaine McCord, 24/2/2004. Citing article on Joseph Atkins in the "Dungog Chronicle", 8/9/1905. Also personal correspondence, 18/2/2004, 25/2/2005 & 29/2/2005. From family records, various birth, marriage & death certificates, Baker family bible.
[38] Trial Transcript, Margaret Kelly, Old Bailey, London, 24/1/1824, <http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=t18240114-177-defend1532&div=t18240114-177#highlight>.
[39] Death certificate, George Twigg, 1862.
[40] Assisted immigrants arriving at Port Philip, 1839-51, <http://www.records.nsw.gov.au/indexes/searchform.aspx>.
[41] Family Group Record: Francis Allman. From Edna Watson, 11/1/1999. Sources include: birth, death & marriage certificates; trial transcript Francis Allman; 1822 NSW Muster; 1828 NSW census; "NSW Calendar & General Post Office Directory 1834", ibid 1836; "Bound Indents: 1823-1826", NSW Archives; trial transcript Margaret Kelly; Rydalmere Psychiatric Hospital Admission Cards 19/15837.
[42] The Sands Directories, Newtown, 1858-1912, <http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/newtownproject/Sands_Directory/sands_directory.html>.
[43] Convict List, "Portsea", S. J. Lowe, Master. Copy supplied by Bronwyn Balfour.
[44] Ticket of Leave, Joseph Atkins, No.45/98. Copy supplied by Bronwyn Balfour.
[45] Court records, Oxford Assizies. From Public Record Office, ASSI/158/11. Copy from Marilyn Merriman.
[46] Death certificate, Louisa Irwin, NSW.1910.5978.
[47] Funeral card for Joseph Joshua Atkins. Copy supplied by Bronwyn Balfour. As with Joseph's obituary, the card gives his age at death to be 94, suggesting a dob of 1811.
[48] International Genealogical Index, LDS, CD-ROM Edition. See also <http://www.familysearch.org>.
[49] Post to The Hunter Valley Genealogy Forum, 15/4/2008, Sylvia Anderson, <http://www.huntervalleygenealogy.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=638&sid=109eceb8da75c3e28e95a905909ec135>.
[50] Convict Ships to Australia, <http://members.iinet.net.au/~perthdps/convicts/ships.html> & for a list of ships & convicts: <http://members.iinet.net.au/~perthdps/convicts/shipNSW2.html>.

[51] Personal correspondence, Margaret Holmes, 15/9/2010.
[52] Personal correspondence, Robyn Grosvenor, 7/2/2011, 8/2/2011.
[53] Personal correspondence, Laura Stewart, 26/5/2011, 28/5/2011. Cites marriage certificate Albert Townsend & Kathleen Spiers & BMD index.
[54] Hulk records for the Justitia. Copy from Judith Cooke, 20/4/2011.
[55] Criminal Register, Newgate Prison, p.128-129. Copy from Judith Cooke, 9/5/2011.
[56] Personal correspondence, Margaret Holmes, 7/6/2011.